Difference between revisions of "Treasury of precious qualities - Vol 1/Contents"

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by Jigme Lingpa<br>
 
by Jigme Lingpa<br>
  
TheQuintessenceoftheThreePaths 105<br>
+
The Quintessence of the Three Paths 105<br>
 
by Longchen Yesha Dorje, Kangyur Rinpoche<br>
 
by Longchen Yesha Dorje, Kangyur Rinpoche<br>
  
Line 28: Line 28:
 
The impermanence of living beings 126<br>
 
The impermanence of living beings 126<br>
  
PART THREE: The Gradual Path oj the Three Kinds oj Beings 131<br>
+
PART THREE: The Gradual Path oj the Three Kinds of Beings 131<br>
 
The Path of Beings of Lesser Scope<br>
 
The Path of Beings of Lesser Scope<br>
 
Ethical Teachings in Relation to the Karmic Law oj Cause and Effect<br>
 
Ethical Teachings in Relation to the Karmic Law oj Cause and Effect<br>
Line 34: Line 34:
 
CHAPTER 3 TheLawofKarma 133<br>
 
CHAPTER 3 TheLawofKarma 133<br>
 
The karmic process in general 133<br>
 
The karmic process in general 133<br>
Actions neverfail to produce an iffect 133 <br>
+
Actions neve rfail to produce an effect 133 <br>
 
The karmic process is irresistible 134<br>
 
The karmic process is irresistible 134<br>
 
Karmic iffects are not transferablefrom one mindstream to another 135<br>
 
Karmic iffects are not transferablefrom one mindstream to another 135<br>
Line 56: Line 56:
 
A recapitulation o f the path o f beings o f lesser scope 151 <br>
 
A recapitulation o f the path o f beings o f lesser scope 151 <br>
 
How beings of medium scope practice virtue 152<br>
 
How beings of medium scope practice virtue 152<br>
H o w beings o f great scope practice virtue 152<br>
+
How beings of great scope practice virtue 152<br>
  
The Path of Beings of Medium Scope 155
+
The Path of Beings of Medium Scope 155<br>
Correct Conduct in Relation to the Four Truths
+
Correct Conduct in Relation to the Four Truths<br>
CHAPTER 4 The Sufferings of Samsara 157 The four truths 157
 
The truth oj suffering 158
 
The all-pervasive nature of suffering 158 The conditions that perpetuate suffering 159 The sufferings of the lower realms 161
 
Tht tight hot htlls 161
 
Tht sixttm ntighboring htlls 16~ Tht tight (oM htlls 164
 
Tht tphtmtral htlls 165
 
Vll1 CONTENTS
 
  
The sufferings of the higher realms 165 Thesufferingofthegods 165
+
CHAPTER 4 The Sufferings of Samsara 157 <br>
The suffering of the asuras 167
+
The four truths 157<br>
The suffering ofhuman beings 168
+
The truth oj suffering 158<br>
Suffering of suffering 168
+
The all-pervasive nature of suffering 158 <br>
Suffering of change 168
+
The conditions that perpetuate suffering 159 <br>
All-pervading suffering in the making 168 The eight complementary sufferings 169
+
The sufferings of the lower realms 161<br>
Birth 169 Old agt 171 IlIntss 172
+
Tht tight hot htlls 161<br>
Dtath 172
+
Tht sixttm ntighboring htlls 163<br>
Mttting unwanttd circumstancts 172 Stparation from what is lovtd 173 Not having what ont wants 173 Having what ont dots not want 173
+
Tht tight (oM htlls 164<br>
The truth oj origin 173
+
Tht tphtmtral htlls 165<br>
The truth oj path and truth of cessation 174 The twelve links of dependent arising 175
 
The needfor this teaching 175
 
Definitions of the twelve links 176
 
Four wa)'s of presenting the principlt oj deptndent arising 177
 
The number of lifetimes requiredfor an entire cycle 179 How to meditate on the principle of dependent arising 1 8 0 The unoriginated nature of dependent arising 183
 
The Extraordinary Path of Beings of Great Scope 185 Meditation on the TwoJold Bodhichitta
 
CHAPTER 5 The Preparation: The Four Wheels 187 Prerequisites for the practice 187
 
Solitude 187
 
Livelihood 189
 
Reliance on a spiritual master 191
 
Fully qual!fied masters 191
 
False teachers 193
 
Evoking the sublime qualities oj an authentic teacher 195 Relying on the teacher with a twentyfold attitude 197
 
The characteristics oj bad disciples 198 Thecharacteristicsojgooddisciples 200
 
How to serve andfollow the teacher 201
 
CONTENTS IX
 
.
 
  
How to behave in the presence of the teacher 202 Reasons for serving the teacher 205
+
The sufferings of the higher realms 165 Thesufferingofthegods 165<br>
Conclusion 206
+
The suffering of the asuras 167<br>
Excellent aspiration 208
+
The suffering ofhuman beings 168<br>
The supreme protection of merit 210
+
Suffering of suffering 168<br>
CHAPTER 6 The Foundation of the Path: Refuge 213 The reasons for taking refuge 213
+
Suffering of change 168<br>
Faith as the cause oftaking refuge 213
+
All-pervading suffering in the making 168 <br>
The causes offaith 21 5
+
The eight complementary sufferings 169<br>
The qualities of the Buddha 215
+
Birth 169 <br>
The qualities oj elimination 215
+
Old age 171 <br>
The one hundred and twelve obscurations eliminated on the path of seeing 215 How the obscurations militate against the understanding of the four truths 216 The four hundred and fourteen obscurations eliminated on the path of
+
IlIntss 172<br>
meditation 2 1 7
+
Dtath 172<br>
The difference between the Hinayana and the Mahayana approaches to the
+
Mttting unwanttd circumstancts 172 <br>
removal of obscurations 219
+
Stparation from what is lovtd 173 <br>
The Hinayana and Mahayana ways of removing the obscurations by seeing 219 How the obscurations are eliminated on the path of meditation 222
+
Not having what ont wants 173 <br>
The qualities oj a Buddha's realization 2 2 3
+
Having what ont dots not want 173<br>
The qualities of the Dharma 225
+
The truth oj origin 173<br>
Dharma posited Dharma difined The Dharma The Dharma The grounds
+
The truth oj path and truth of cessation 174 <br>
as the two truths oj path and cessation 2 2 5
+
The twelve links of dependent arising 175<br>
as the Dharma oj transmission and realization 2 2 5
+
The needfor this teaching 175<br>
of transmission 225
+
Definitions of the twelve links 176<br>
of realization 226
+
Four wa)'s of presenting the principlt oj deptndent arising 177<br>
or stages of realization
+
The number of lifetimes requiredfor an entire cycle 179 <br>
2 2 7
+
How to meditate on the principle of dependent arising 1 8 0 <br>
The qualities of the Sangha 229
+
The unoriginated nature of dependent arising 183<br>
The Hina)'ana and Mahayana Sangha 2 3 0
 
What is refuge? 231
 
Causal and resultant refuge 231
 
The different motivesfor taking refuge 232
 
How to take refuge 233
 
The benefits of taking refuge 234
 
The btntfits of causal refuge 234
 
The btntfits of resultant refuge 235
 
The precepts of the refuge vow 236
 
The precepts of causal refuge 236
 
The precepts regarding things to be avoided 236
 
The precepts regarding things to be accomplished 236
 
Thepreceptsofresultantrefuge 237 ~f1hen the refuge vow is broken 237
 
x CONTENTS
 
  
Attitudes incompatible with refuge 2~8
+
The Extraordinary Path of Beings of Great Scope 185 <br>
The benefits oj observing the precepts oj the refuge w w 2~8
+
Meditation on the Twofold Bodhichitta<br>
CHAPTER 7 Cleansing the Mind by Training in the Four Boundless Attitudes 239
 
The Mahayana path 2~9
 
The four boundless attitudes 240
 
How to meditate on the four boundless attitudes 242 The benefits of this meditation 242
 
CHAPTER 8 The Vow of Bodhichitta 247 What is bodhichitta? 247
 
Classifications of bodhichitta 249
 
Bodhichitta in aspiration and action 2 4 9
 
Other c/ass!fications oj bodhichitta 249
 
Bodhichitta classijitd according to twenty-two similes 250 Bodhichitta classijitd according to its benefits 251
 
Bodhichitta classijitd according to the speed oj progression 25~
 
How to cultivate bodhichitta 25~ Thecausesojbodhichitta 254
 
Who can generate bodhichitta? 254
 
The ritual for taking the vow oj bodhichitta 255
 
Inculcating the correct attitude 255 Accumulating merit 256
 
Prtparing tht platt 256
 
Inviting thtfuM ofmtrit 256
 
Offtring cleansing wattrs and clothts 257 Rtqutsting to bt stattd 260 Exprtssionsofrtsput 260
 
Tht praytr of stvtn branchts 261 Offtring ontstlj in strvitt 264 Conclusion 265
 
The ritual of the bodhisattva vow 266
 
The conclusion of the ritual: the uplifting of one's own and others' minds 269
 
CHAPTER 9 The Precepts of Bodhichitta in Aspiration
 
and Action 271
 
The Bodhisattva commitment 271
 
The precepts concerning what is to be avoided 27~
 
Repairingfaults 274
 
The precepts to be implemented 275
 
Thefour precepts ojaspiration bodhichitta 275
 
The first precept: taking suffering and giving happiness 275
 
CONTENTS Xl
 
.
 
  
..
+
CHAPTER 5 The Preparation: The Four Wheels 187 <br>
The second precept: the seven-point causal sequence giving birth to the attitude of bodhichitta 276
+
Prerequisites for the practice 187<br>
The third precept: the four black and four white factors 278
+
Solitude 187<br>
The fourth precept: the four attitudes that strengthen bodhichitta 279
+
Livelihood 189<br>
The precepts oj bodhichitta in action 2 8 0
+
Reliance on a spiritual master 191<br>
A brief explanation of the paramitas 280
+
Fully qual!fied masters 191<br>
A categorization of Bodhisattvas according to their strength of mind 2 8 0 The Paramita of Generosity 281
+
False teachers 193<br>
Thegiftofmaterialthings 281
+
Evoking the sublime qualities oj an authentic teacher 195 <br>
The gift of protection from fear 2 8 2 ThegiftofDharma 283
+
Relying on the teacher with a twentyfold attitude 197<br>
The Paramita of Discipline 284
+
The characteristics oj bad disciples 198<br>
The diScipline ofavoiding negative actions 284
+
Thecharacteristicsojgooddisciples 200<br>
The difference between the vows of the Hinayana and Mahayana 284 Avoiding negativity according to the Mahayana 286
+
How to serve andfollow the teacher 201<br>
The levels of ordination 287
+
How to behave in the presence of the teacher 202 <br>
Tht Prtctpts ofLayptoplt 287 Tht Monastic Prtctpts 288
+
Reasons for serving the teacher 205<br>
The precepts of shramaneras 288
+
Conclusion 206<br>
The precepts of a woman novice in training for full ordination 290 The precepts of full monastic ordination 290
+
Excellent aspiration 208<br>
Tht prtctpts conctrning what is to bt avoidtd 290
+
The supreme protection of merit 210<br>
Tht prtctpts conctrning what is to bt dont 291
+
 
How the three kinds of vow may be observed simultaneously 293
+
CHAPTER 6 The Foundation of the Path: Refuge 213 <br>
Tht obstrvanct of tht thru vows as taught in tht Nyingma tradition 296
+
The reasons for taking refuge 213<br>
I. The aspects remain distinct 297
+
Faith as the cause oftaking refuge 213<br>
2. The three vows are the same both in purpose and as antidote 297 3. The transmutation of the vows 299
+
The causes offaith 21 5<br>
4. The gradual qualitative enhancement of the three vows 305
+
The qualities of the Buddha 215<br>
5. The absence of contradiction in the practice of the three vows 306 6. Observance should be appropriate to the moment 306
+
The qualities oj elimination 215<br>
Tht thrtt vows as prtstnttd in othtr traditions 308
+
The one hundred and twelve obscurations eliminated on the path of seeing 215 <br>
Concluding summary 312
+
How the obscurations militate against the understanding of the four truths 216 <br>
The diScipline ofgathering virtue 316 The discipline ofbentjiting others 318
+
The four hundred and fourteen obscurations eliminated on the path of meditation 2 1 7<br>
The Paramita of Patience 319 The Paramita of Diligence 322
+
The difference between the Hinayana and the Mahayana approaches to the removal of obscurations 219<br>
The three kinds of laziness 322
+
The Hinayana and Mahayana ways of removing the obscurations by seeing 219 <br>
Thethreekindsofdiligence 323
+
How the obscurations are eliminated on the path of meditation 222<br>
The Paramita of Concentration 324
+
The qualities oj a Buddha's realization 2 2 3<br>
The prerequisitesfor concentration 324
+
The qualities of the Dharma 225<br>
In praise of forest dwellings 324 Giving up attachment to wealth 324
+
Dharma posited Dharma difined The Dharma The Dharma The grounds<br>
XU CONTENTS
+
as the two truths oj path and cessation 2 2 5<br>
 +
as the Dharma oj transmission and realization 2 2 5<br>
 +
of transmission 225<br>
 +
of realization 226<br>
 +
or stages of realization 2 2 7<br>
 +
The qualities of the Sangha 229<br>
 +
The Hina)'ana and Mahayana Sangha 2 3 0<br>
 +
What is refuge? 231<br>
 +
Causal and resultant refuge 231<br>
 +
The different motivesfor taking refuge 232<br>
 +
How to take refuge 233<br>
 +
The benefits of taking refuge 234<br>
 +
The btntfits of causal refuge 234<br>
 +
The btntfits of resultant refuge 235<br>
 +
The precepts of the refuge vow 236<br>
 +
The precepts of causal refuge 236<br>
 +
The precepts regarding things to be avoided 236<br>
 +
The precepts regarding things to be accomplished 236<br>
 +
Thepreceptsofresultantrefuge 237 ~f1hen the refuge vow is broken 237<br>
 +
Attitudes incompatible with refuge 2~8<br>
 +
The benefits oj observing the precepts oj the refuge w w 2~8<br>
 +
 
 +
CHAPTER 7 Cleansing the Mind by Training in the Four Boundless Attitudes 239<br>
 +
The Mahayana path 2~9<br>
 +
The four boundless attitudes 240<br>
 +
How to meditate on the four boundless attitudes 242 <br>
 +
The benefits of this meditation 242<br>
 +
 
 +
CHAPTER 8 The Vow of Bodhichitta 247 <br>
 +
What is bodhichitta? 247<br>
 +
Classifications of bodhichitta 249<br>
 +
Bodhichitta in aspiration and action 2 4 9<br>
 +
Other c/ass!fications oj bodhichitta 249<br>
 +
Bodhichitta classijitd according to twenty-two similes 250 <br>
 +
Bodhichitta classijitd according to its benefits 251<br>
 +
Bodhichitta classijitd according to the speed oj progression 25~<br>
 +
How to cultivate bodhichitta 25~ <br>
 +
Thecausesojbodhichitta 254<br>
 +
Who can generate bodhichitta? 254<br>
 +
The ritual for taking the vow oj bodhichitta 255<br>
 +
Inculcating the correct attitude 255 <br>
 +
Accumulating merit 256<br>
 +
Prtparing tht platt 256<br>
 +
Inviting thtfuM ofmtrit 256<br>
 +
Offtring cleansing wattrs and clothts 257 <br>
 +
Rtqutsting to bt stattd 260 Exprtssionsofrtsput 260
 +
Tht praytr of stvtn branchts 261 Offtring ontstlj in strvitt 264 <br>
 +
Conclusion 265<br>
 +
The ritual of the bodhisattva vow 266<br>
 +
The conclusion of the ritual: the uplifting of one's own and others' minds 269<br>
 +
 
 +
CHAPTER 9 The Precepts of Bodhichitta in Aspiration and Action 271<br>
 +
The Bodhisattva commitment 271<br>
 +
The precepts concerning what is to be avoided 27~<br>
 +
Repairingfaults 274<br>
 +
The precepts to be implemented 275<br>
 +
Thefour precepts ojaspiration bodhichitta 275<br>
 +
The first precept: taking suffering and giving happiness 275<br>
 +
The second precept: the seven-point causal sequence giving birth to the attitude of bodhichitta 276<br>
 +
The third precept: the four black and four white factors 278<br>
 +
The fourth precept: the four attitudes that strengthen bodhichitta 279<br>
 +
The precepts oj bodhichitta in action 2 8 0<br>
 +
A brief explanation of the paramitas 280<br>
 +
A categorization of Bodhisattvas according to their strength of mind 2 8 0 The Paramita of Generosity 281<br>
 +
Thegiftofmaterialthings 281<br>
 +
The gift of protection from fear 2 8 2 <br>
 +
ThegiftofDharma 283<br>
 +
The Paramita of Discipline 284<br>
 +
The diScipline ofavoiding negative actions 284<br>
 +
The difference between the vows of the Hinayana and Mahayana 284 <br>
 +
Avoiding negativity according to the Mahayana 286<br>
 +
The levels of ordination 287<br>
 +
Tht Prtctpts ofLayptoplt 287 <br>
 +
Tht Monastic Prtctpts 288<br>
 +
The precepts of shramaneras 288<br>
 +
The precepts of a woman novice in training for full ordination 290 <br>
 +
The precepts of full monastic ordination 290<br>
 +
Tht prtctpts conctrning what is to bt avoidtd 290<br>
 +
Tht prtctpts conctrning what is to bt dont 291<br>
 +
How the three kinds of vow may be observed simultaneously 293<br>
 +
Tht obstrvanct of tht thru vows as taught in tht Nyingma tradition 296<br>
 +
I. The aspects remain distinct 297<br>
 +
2. The three vows are the same both in purpose and as antidote 297 <br>
 +
3. The transmutation of the vows 299<br>
 +
4. The gradual qualitative enhancement of the three vows 305<br>
 +
5. The absence of contradiction in the practice of the three vows 306 <br>
 +
6. Observance should be appropriate to the moment 306<br>
 +
Tht thrtt vows as prtstnttd in othtr traditions 308<br>
 +
Concluding summary 312<br>
 +
The diScipline ofgathering virtue 316 The discipline ofbentjiting others 318<br>
 +
The Paramita of Patience 319 The Paramita of Diligence 322<br>
 +
The three kinds of laziness 322<br>
 +
Thethreekindsofdiligence 323<br>
 +
The Paramita of Concentration 324<br>
 +
The prerequisitesfor concentration 324<br>
 +
In praise of forest dwellings 324 <br>
 +
Giving up attachment to wealth 324
 +
Giving up attachment to bad company 325 <br>
 +
Giving up attachment to objects of the senses 326 <br>
 +
In praise of solitude 327<br>
 +
Concentration itself 328<br>
 +
The essence of concentration 328 <br>
 +
The categories of concentration 329<br>
 +
Childish concentration 329<br>
 +
Clearly disc"ning concentration 332<br>
 +
The excellent concentration of the Tathagatas 332<br>
 +
The qualities resulting from concentration 333 <br>
 +
The Paramita of Wisdom 335<br>
 +
The categories of wisdom 335<br>
 +
The wisdom resultingjrom hearing the teachings 335<br>
 +
The keys that open the treasure chest of Dharma 336 <br>
 +
The drjrnitivt and expedient teachings 336<br>
 +
The implied teachings and indirect teachings 337<br>
 +
Implied teachings 337<br>
 +
Indirect teachings 338<br>
 +
The difference between implied and indirect teachings 342<br>
 +
An explanation of the treasury of Dharma 342 <br>
 +
A general exposition of the two truths 342<br>
 +
Thefour tentlsystems 345<br>
 +
The Vaibhashikas 345<br>
 +
The Sautrantikas 345<br>
 +
The Chittamatrins, the Mind Only school 346 <br>
 +
The Svatantrika Madhyamikas 346<br>
 +
The Prasangika Madhyamikas 347<br>
 +
Conclusion 349<br>
 +
The wisdom resultingjrom reflection 351<br>
 +
Dependent arising with regard to the ground nature 351 <br>
 +
The dependent arising of samsara 353<br>
 +
The dependent arising of nirvana 354<br>
 +
The wisdom resultingjrom meditation 355 Wisdom itself 355<br>
 +
Progress on the paths and the attainment of the result 356 <br>
 +
A concluding summary of the six paramitas 357<br>
  
Giving up attachment to bad company 325 Giving up attachment to objects of the senses 326 In praise of solitude 327
 
Concentration itself 328
 
The essence of concentration 328 The categories of concentration 329
 
Childish concentration 329
 
Clearly disc"ning concentration 332
 
The excellent concentration of the Tathagatas 332
 
The qualities resulting from concentration 333 The Paramita of Wisdom 335
 
The categories of wisdom 335
 
The wisdom resultingjrom hearing the teachings 335
 
The keys that open the treasure chest of Dharma 336 The drjrnitivt and expedient teachings 336
 
The implied teachings and indirect teachings 337
 
Implied teachings 337
 
Indirect teachings 338
 
The difference between implied and indirect teachings 342
 
An explanation of the treasury of Dharma 342 A general exposition of the two truths 342
 
Thefour tentlsystems 345
 
The Vaibhashikas 345
 
The Sautrantikas 345
 
The Chittamatrins, the Mind Only school 346 The Svatantrika Madhyamikas 346
 
The Prasangika Madhyamikas 347 Conclusion 349
 
The wisdom resultingjrom reflection 351
 
Dependent arising with regard to the ground nature 351 The dependent arising of samsara 353
 
The dependent arising of nirvana 354
 
The wisdom resultingjrom meditation 355 Wisdom itself 355
 
Progress on the paths and the attainment of the result 356 A concluding summary of the six paramitas 357
 
 
APPENDIX I Impermanence demonstrated by the formation and
 
APPENDIX I Impermanence demonstrated by the formation and
 
destruction of the universe according to Buddhist cosmology 359 The gradual formation of the universe 359
 
destruction of the universe according to Buddhist cosmology 359 The gradual formation of the universe 359

Revision as of 14:15, 14 March 2019

Foreword by His Holiness the Dalai Lama xvii
Foreword byJigme Kbyentse Rinpoche xix
Introduction I

Treasury of Precious Qualities 15
by Jigme Lingpa

The Quintessence of the Three Paths 105
by Longchen Yesha Dorje, Kangyur Rinpoche

Prologue 107
The title 107
Homage to the Three Jewels 1 0 8
Commitment to Compose the Text 110

PART ONE: Turning the Mind to the Dhanna 115

CHAPTER I The Value of Human Existence 117
Samsaric existence 117
Eight conditions in which there is no freedom to practice the Dharma 117
Five individual and five circumstantial advantages 121
The rarity of a precious human existence 121

PART TWO: An Incentivejor the Practice 123

CHAPTER 2 Impermanence 125
The impermanence of the outer world 125
The impermanence of living beings 126

PART THREE: The Gradual Path oj the Three Kinds of Beings 131
The Path of Beings of Lesser Scope
Ethical Teachings in Relation to the Karmic Law oj Cause and Effect

CHAPTER 3 TheLawofKarma 133
The karmic process in general 133
Actions neve rfail to produce an effect 133
The karmic process is irresistible 134
Karmic iffects are not transferablefrom one mindstream to another 135
An explanation oj the eight worldly concerns and thirteen influentialfactors 135
The proliferating tendency oj karmic results 136
Assessingthegravityojpositiveandnegativeactions 138
The basis oj the karmic phenomenon 139
Propelling and completing actions 140
The performed and stored aspects oj actions 141
Negative actions 142
Negative actions regarding the Three Jewels 142
The crucial role oj intention 142
The ten negative actions 142
The results oj the ten negative actions 146
The fully ripened effect 147
The effect similar to the cause 147
The conditioning or environmental effect 148
The proliferating effect 150
Conclusion 150
Virtuous actions 151
A recapitulation o f the path o f beings o f lesser scope 151
How beings of medium scope practice virtue 152
How beings of great scope practice virtue 152

The Path of Beings of Medium Scope 155
Correct Conduct in Relation to the Four Truths

CHAPTER 4 The Sufferings of Samsara 157
The four truths 157
The truth oj suffering 158
The all-pervasive nature of suffering 158
The conditions that perpetuate suffering 159
The sufferings of the lower realms 161
Tht tight hot htlls 161
Tht sixttm ntighboring htlls 163
Tht tight (oM htlls 164
Tht tphtmtral htlls 165

The sufferings of the higher realms 165 Thesufferingofthegods 165
The suffering of the asuras 167
The suffering ofhuman beings 168
Suffering of suffering 168
Suffering of change 168
All-pervading suffering in the making 168
The eight complementary sufferings 169
Birth 169
Old age 171
IlIntss 172
Dtath 172
Mttting unwanttd circumstancts 172
Stparation from what is lovtd 173
Not having what ont wants 173
Having what ont dots not want 173
The truth oj origin 173
The truth oj path and truth of cessation 174
The twelve links of dependent arising 175
The needfor this teaching 175
Definitions of the twelve links 176
Four wa)'s of presenting the principlt oj deptndent arising 177
The number of lifetimes requiredfor an entire cycle 179
How to meditate on the principle of dependent arising 1 8 0
The unoriginated nature of dependent arising 183

The Extraordinary Path of Beings of Great Scope 185
Meditation on the Twofold Bodhichitta

CHAPTER 5 The Preparation: The Four Wheels 187
Prerequisites for the practice 187
Solitude 187
Livelihood 189
Reliance on a spiritual master 191
Fully qual!fied masters 191
False teachers 193
Evoking the sublime qualities oj an authentic teacher 195
Relying on the teacher with a twentyfold attitude 197
The characteristics oj bad disciples 198
Thecharacteristicsojgooddisciples 200
How to serve andfollow the teacher 201
How to behave in the presence of the teacher 202
Reasons for serving the teacher 205
Conclusion 206
Excellent aspiration 208
The supreme protection of merit 210

CHAPTER 6 The Foundation of the Path: Refuge 213
The reasons for taking refuge 213
Faith as the cause oftaking refuge 213
The causes offaith 21 5
The qualities of the Buddha 215
The qualities oj elimination 215
The one hundred and twelve obscurations eliminated on the path of seeing 215
How the obscurations militate against the understanding of the four truths 216
The four hundred and fourteen obscurations eliminated on the path of meditation 2 1 7
The difference between the Hinayana and the Mahayana approaches to the removal of obscurations 219
The Hinayana and Mahayana ways of removing the obscurations by seeing 219
How the obscurations are eliminated on the path of meditation 222
The qualities oj a Buddha's realization 2 2 3
The qualities of the Dharma 225
Dharma posited Dharma difined The Dharma The Dharma The grounds
as the two truths oj path and cessation 2 2 5
as the Dharma oj transmission and realization 2 2 5
of transmission 225
of realization 226
or stages of realization 2 2 7
The qualities of the Sangha 229
The Hina)'ana and Mahayana Sangha 2 3 0
What is refuge? 231
Causal and resultant refuge 231
The different motivesfor taking refuge 232
How to take refuge 233
The benefits of taking refuge 234
The btntfits of causal refuge 234
The btntfits of resultant refuge 235
The precepts of the refuge vow 236
The precepts of causal refuge 236
The precepts regarding things to be avoided 236
The precepts regarding things to be accomplished 236
Thepreceptsofresultantrefuge 237 ~f1hen the refuge vow is broken 237
Attitudes incompatible with refuge 2~8
The benefits oj observing the precepts oj the refuge w w 2~8

CHAPTER 7 Cleansing the Mind by Training in the Four Boundless Attitudes 239
The Mahayana path 2~9
The four boundless attitudes 240
How to meditate on the four boundless attitudes 242
The benefits of this meditation 242

CHAPTER 8 The Vow of Bodhichitta 247
What is bodhichitta? 247
Classifications of bodhichitta 249
Bodhichitta in aspiration and action 2 4 9
Other c/ass!fications oj bodhichitta 249
Bodhichitta classijitd according to twenty-two similes 250
Bodhichitta classijitd according to its benefits 251
Bodhichitta classijitd according to the speed oj progression 25~
How to cultivate bodhichitta 25~
Thecausesojbodhichitta 254
Who can generate bodhichitta? 254
The ritual for taking the vow oj bodhichitta 255
Inculcating the correct attitude 255
Accumulating merit 256
Prtparing tht platt 256
Inviting thtfuM ofmtrit 256
Offtring cleansing wattrs and clothts 257
Rtqutsting to bt stattd 260 Exprtssionsofrtsput 260 Tht praytr of stvtn branchts 261 Offtring ontstlj in strvitt 264
Conclusion 265
The ritual of the bodhisattva vow 266
The conclusion of the ritual: the uplifting of one's own and others' minds 269

CHAPTER 9 The Precepts of Bodhichitta in Aspiration and Action 271
The Bodhisattva commitment 271
The precepts concerning what is to be avoided 27~
Repairingfaults 274
The precepts to be implemented 275
Thefour precepts ojaspiration bodhichitta 275
The first precept: taking suffering and giving happiness 275
The second precept: the seven-point causal sequence giving birth to the attitude of bodhichitta 276
The third precept: the four black and four white factors 278
The fourth precept: the four attitudes that strengthen bodhichitta 279
The precepts oj bodhichitta in action 2 8 0
A brief explanation of the paramitas 280
A categorization of Bodhisattvas according to their strength of mind 2 8 0 The Paramita of Generosity 281
Thegiftofmaterialthings 281
The gift of protection from fear 2 8 2
ThegiftofDharma 283
The Paramita of Discipline 284
The diScipline ofavoiding negative actions 284
The difference between the vows of the Hinayana and Mahayana 284
Avoiding negativity according to the Mahayana 286
The levels of ordination 287
Tht Prtctpts ofLayptoplt 287
Tht Monastic Prtctpts 288
The precepts of shramaneras 288
The precepts of a woman novice in training for full ordination 290
The precepts of full monastic ordination 290
Tht prtctpts conctrning what is to bt avoidtd 290
Tht prtctpts conctrning what is to bt dont 291
How the three kinds of vow may be observed simultaneously 293
Tht obstrvanct of tht thru vows as taught in tht Nyingma tradition 296
I. The aspects remain distinct 297
2. The three vows are the same both in purpose and as antidote 297
3. The transmutation of the vows 299
4. The gradual qualitative enhancement of the three vows 305
5. The absence of contradiction in the practice of the three vows 306
6. Observance should be appropriate to the moment 306
Tht thrtt vows as prtstnttd in othtr traditions 308
Concluding summary 312
The diScipline ofgathering virtue 316 The discipline ofbentjiting others 318
The Paramita of Patience 319 The Paramita of Diligence 322
The three kinds of laziness 322
Thethreekindsofdiligence 323
The Paramita of Concentration 324
The prerequisitesfor concentration 324
In praise of forest dwellings 324
Giving up attachment to wealth 324 Giving up attachment to bad company 325
Giving up attachment to objects of the senses 326
In praise of solitude 327
Concentration itself 328
The essence of concentration 328
The categories of concentration 329
Childish concentration 329
Clearly disc"ning concentration 332
The excellent concentration of the Tathagatas 332
The qualities resulting from concentration 333
The Paramita of Wisdom 335
The categories of wisdom 335
The wisdom resultingjrom hearing the teachings 335
The keys that open the treasure chest of Dharma 336
The drjrnitivt and expedient teachings 336
The implied teachings and indirect teachings 337
Implied teachings 337
Indirect teachings 338
The difference between implied and indirect teachings 342
An explanation of the treasury of Dharma 342
A general exposition of the two truths 342
Thefour tentlsystems 345
The Vaibhashikas 345
The Sautrantikas 345
The Chittamatrins, the Mind Only school 346
The Svatantrika Madhyamikas 346
The Prasangika Madhyamikas 347
Conclusion 349
The wisdom resultingjrom reflection 351
Dependent arising with regard to the ground nature 351
The dependent arising of samsara 353
The dependent arising of nirvana 354
The wisdom resultingjrom meditation 355 Wisdom itself 355
Progress on the paths and the attainment of the result 356
A concluding summary of the six paramitas 357

APPENDIX I Impermanence demonstrated by the formation and destruction of the universe according to Buddhist cosmology 359 The gradual formation of the universe 359 The gradual formation of animate beings 360 The duration of the universe 362 The destruction of beings 363 CONTENTS Xl11

.

The destruction of the universe 364 The period of voidness 364 The four periods reflected in the existence of an individual being 365 The ceaseless continuity of the process of formation and destruction 366 APPENDIX 2 The bardo 369 The four bardos 369 The six uncertainties of the bardo of becoming 369 How to benefit the consciousness of beings in the bardo 371 APPENDIX 3 The four truths 373 Essential definitions and aspects of the four truths 373 The meaning of the term "four truths" 374 A sequential exposition of the four truths 374 APPENDIX 4 APPENDIX 5 The five aggregates 377 A Buddha's qualities of realization 387 The five paths and the thirty-seven elements leading to APPENDIX 6 enlightenment 391 APPENDIX 7 The two truths 397 The two truths according to the Madhyamika view 397 The specificity of the two truths 398 Their literal, etymological meaning 398 Their necessarily binary character 399 The kinds of cognition that validly ascertain the two truths 4 0 0 Divisions and categories of the two truths 4 0 0 The necessity and benefits of establishing the two truths 410 APPENDIX 8 The Madhyamika school 413 The Svatantrika Madhyamikas 413 The Prasangika Madhyamikas 417 Establishing the ground Madhyamika 417 IJentifying the object oj rifutation: the two selves 421 The difference between the "self" and "apprehension of (or clinging to) self" 421 Ana9'sis through the application oj reason 4 2 2 The four arguments 424 An investigation of causes: the Diamond Splinters argument 425 An investigation of results: no effects, whether existent or nonexistent, can be said to be produced 426 An investigation of the causal process itself: a refutation of origination related to four possible alternatives 426 XIV CONTENTS

An investigation into the nature of phenomena: the Great Interdependence argument and the argument of "Neither One nor Many" 427

Wiry the Madlryamika dialectic is superior to all other tenet systems 428 APPENDIX 9 The twenty-one qualities of Dharmakaya wisdom 431 APPENDIX 10 Notes 439 Glossary 491 Bibliography 531 Index 537