Treasury of precious qualities - Vol 1
yon tan rin po che'i mdzod kyi rtsa ba dang mchan 'grel theg gsum bdud rtsi'i nying khu
The Rain of Joy
by JIGME LINGPA
WITH The Quintessence of the Three Paths
A Commentary by Longchen Yeshe Dorje, Kangyur Rinpoche
Translated by the Padmakara Translation Group
Forewords by H. H. the Dalai Lama
and Jigme Khyentse Rinpoche
BOSTON & LONDON
Foreword by His Holiness the Dalai Lama xvii
Foreword byJigme Kbyentse Rinpoche xix
Treasury of Precious Qualities 15
by Jigme Lingpa
The Quintessence of the Three Paths 105
by Longchen Yesha Dorje, Kangyur Rinpoche
The title 107
Homage to the Three Jewels 1 0 8
Commitment to Compose the Text 110
PART ONE: Turning the Mind to the Dhanna 115
CHAPTER I The Value of Human Existence 117
Samsaric existence 117
Eight conditions in which there is no freedom to practice the Dharma 117
Five individual and five circumstantial advantages 121
The rarity of a precious human existence 121
PART TWO: An Incentivejor the Practice 123
CHAPTER 2 Impermanence 125
The impermanence of the outer world 125
The impermanence of living beings 126
PART THREE: The Gradual Path oj the Three Kinds of Beings 131
The Path of Beings of Lesser Scope
Ethical Teachings in Relation to the Karmic Law oj Cause and Effect
CHAPTER 3 TheLawofKarma 133
The karmic process in general 133
Actions neve rfail to produce an effect 133
The karmic process is irresistible 134
Karmic iffects are not transferablefrom one mindstream to another 135
An explanation oj the eight worldly concerns and thirteen influentialfactors 135
The proliferating tendency oj karmic results 136
The basis oj the karmic phenomenon 139
Propelling and completing actions 140
The performed and stored aspects oj actions 141
Negative actions 142
Negative actions regarding the Three Jewels 142
The crucial role oj intention 142
The ten negative actions 142
The results oj the ten negative actions 146
The fully ripened effect 147
The effect similar to the cause 147
The conditioning or environmental effect 148
The proliferating effect 150
Virtuous actions 151
A recapitulation o f the path o f beings o f lesser scope 151
How beings of medium scope practice virtue 152
How beings of great scope practice virtue 152
The Path of Beings of Medium Scope 155
Correct Conduct in Relation to the Four Truths
CHAPTER 4 The Sufferings of Samsara 157
The four truths 157
The truth oj suffering 158
The all-pervasive nature of suffering 158
The conditions that perpetuate suffering 159
The sufferings of the lower realms 161
Tht tight hot htlls 161
Tht sixttm ntighboring htlls 163
Tht tight (oM htlls 164
Tht tphtmtral htlls 165
The sufferings of the higher realms 165 Thesufferingofthegods 165
The suffering of the asuras 167
The suffering ofhuman beings 168
Suffering of suffering 168
Suffering of change 168
All-pervading suffering in the making 168
The eight complementary sufferings 169
Old age 171
Mttting unwanttd circumstancts 172
Stparation from what is lovtd 173
Not having what ont wants 173
Having what ont dots not want 173
The truth oj origin 173
The truth oj path and truth of cessation 174
The twelve links of dependent arising 175
The needfor this teaching 175
Definitions of the twelve links 176
Four wa)'s of presenting the principlt oj deptndent arising 177
The number of lifetimes requiredfor an entire cycle 179
How to meditate on the principle of dependent arising 1 8 0
The unoriginated nature of dependent arising 183
The Extraordinary Path of Beings of Great Scope 185
Meditation on the Twofold Bodhichitta
CHAPTER 5 The Preparation: The Four Wheels 187
Prerequisites for the practice 187
Reliance on a spiritual master 191
Fully qual!fied masters 191
False teachers 193
Evoking the sublime qualities oj an authentic teacher 195
Relying on the teacher with a twentyfold attitude 197
The characteristics oj bad disciples 198
How to serve andfollow the teacher 201
How to behave in the presence of the teacher 202
Reasons for serving the teacher 205
Excellent aspiration 208
The supreme protection of merit 210
CHAPTER 6 The Foundation of the Path: Refuge 213
The reasons for taking refuge 213
Faith as the cause oftaking refuge 213
The causes offaith 21 5
The qualities of the Buddha 215
The qualities oj elimination 215
The one hundred and twelve obscurations eliminated on the path of seeing 215
How the obscurations militate against the understanding of the four truths 216
The four hundred and fourteen obscurations eliminated on the path of meditation 2 1 7
The difference between the Hinayana and the Mahayana approaches to the removal of obscurations 219
The Hinayana and Mahayana ways of removing the obscurations by seeing 219
How the obscurations are eliminated on the path of meditation 222
The qualities oj a Buddha's realization 2 2 3
The qualities of the Dharma 225
Dharma posited Dharma difined The Dharma The Dharma The grounds
as the two truths oj path and cessation 2 2 5
as the Dharma oj transmission and realization 2 2 5
of transmission 225
of realization 226
or stages of realization 2 2 7
The qualities of the Sangha 229
The Hina)'ana and Mahayana Sangha 2 3 0
What is refuge? 231
Causal and resultant refuge 231
The different motivesfor taking refuge 232
How to take refuge 233
The benefits of taking refuge 234
The btntfits of causal refuge 234
The btntfits of resultant refuge 235
The precepts of the refuge vow 236
The precepts of causal refuge 236
The precepts regarding things to be avoided 236
The precepts regarding things to be accomplished 236
Thepreceptsofresultantrefuge 237 ~f1hen the refuge vow is broken 237
Attitudes incompatible with refuge 2~8
The benefits oj observing the precepts oj the refuge w w 2~8
CHAPTER 7 Cleansing the Mind by Training in the Four Boundless Attitudes 239
The Mahayana path 2~9
The four boundless attitudes 240
How to meditate on the four boundless attitudes 242
The benefits of this meditation 242
CHAPTER 8 The Vow of Bodhichitta 247
What is bodhichitta? 247
Classifications of bodhichitta 249
Bodhichitta in aspiration and action 2 4 9
Other c/ass!fications oj bodhichitta 249
Bodhichitta classijitd according to twenty-two similes 250
Bodhichitta classijitd according to its benefits 251
Bodhichitta classijitd according to the speed oj progression 25~
How to cultivate bodhichitta 25~
Who can generate bodhichitta? 254
The ritual for taking the vow oj bodhichitta 255
Inculcating the correct attitude 255
Accumulating merit 256
Prtparing tht platt 256
Inviting thtfuM ofmtrit 256
Offtring cleansing wattrs and clothts 257
Rtqutsting to bt stattd 260 Exprtssionsofrtsput 260 Tht praytr of stvtn branchts 261 Offtring ontstlj in strvitt 264
The ritual of the bodhisattva vow 266
The conclusion of the ritual: the uplifting of one's own and others' minds 269
CHAPTER 9 The Precepts of Bodhichitta in Aspiration and Action 271
The Bodhisattva commitment 271
The precepts concerning what is to be avoided 27~
The precepts to be implemented 275
Thefour precepts ojaspiration bodhichitta 275
The first precept: taking suffering and giving happiness 275
The second precept: the seven-point causal sequence giving birth to the attitude of bodhichitta 276
The third precept: the four black and four white factors 278
The fourth precept: the four attitudes that strengthen bodhichitta 279
The precepts oj bodhichitta in action 2 8 0
A brief explanation of the paramitas 280
A categorization of Bodhisattvas according to their strength of mind 2 8 0 The Paramita of Generosity 281
The gift of protection from fear 2 8 2
The Paramita of Discipline 284
The diScipline ofavoiding negative actions 284
The difference between the vows of the Hinayana and Mahayana 284
Avoiding negativity according to the Mahayana 286
The levels of ordination 287
Tht Prtctpts ofLayptoplt 287
Tht Monastic Prtctpts 288
The precepts of shramaneras 288
The precepts of a woman novice in training for full ordination 290
The precepts of full monastic ordination 290
Tht prtctpts conctrning what is to bt avoidtd 290
Tht prtctpts conctrning what is to bt dont 291
How the three kinds of vow may be observed simultaneously 293
Tht obstrvanct of tht thru vows as taught in tht Nyingma tradition 296
I. The aspects remain distinct 297
2. The three vows are the same both in purpose and as antidote 297
3. The transmutation of the vows 299
4. The gradual qualitative enhancement of the three vows 305
5. The absence of contradiction in the practice of the three vows 306
6. Observance should be appropriate to the moment 306
Tht thrtt vows as prtstnttd in othtr traditions 308
Concluding summary 312
The diScipline ofgathering virtue 316 The discipline ofbentjiting others 318
The Paramita of Patience 319 The Paramita of Diligence 322
The three kinds of laziness 322
The Paramita of Concentration 324
The prerequisitesfor concentration 324
In praise of forest dwellings 324
Giving up attachment to wealth 324 Giving up attachment to bad company 325
Giving up attachment to objects of the senses 326
In praise of solitude 327
Concentration itself 328
The essence of concentration 328
The categories of concentration 329
Childish concentration 329
Clearly disc"ning concentration 332
The excellent concentration of the Tathagatas 332
The qualities resulting from concentration 333
The Paramita of Wisdom 335
The categories of wisdom 335
The wisdom resultingjrom hearing the teachings 335
The keys that open the treasure chest of Dharma 336
The drjrnitivt and expedient teachings 336
The implied teachings and indirect teachings 337
Implied teachings 337
Indirect teachings 338
The difference between implied and indirect teachings 342
An explanation of the treasury of Dharma 342
A general exposition of the two truths 342
Thefour tentlsystems 345
The Vaibhashikas 345
The Sautrantikas 345
The Chittamatrins, the Mind Only school 346
The Svatantrika Madhyamikas 346
The Prasangika Madhyamikas 347
The wisdom resultingjrom reflection 351
Dependent arising with regard to the ground nature 351
The dependent arising of samsara 353
The dependent arising of nirvana 354
The wisdom resultingjrom meditation 355 Wisdom itself 355
Progress on the paths and the attainment of the result 356
A concluding summary of the six paramitas 357
APPENDIX I Impermanence demonstrated by the formation and destruction of the universe according to Buddhist cosmology 359
- The gradual formation of the universe 359
- The gradual formation of animate beings 360
- The duration of the universe 362
- The destruction of beings 363
- The destruction of the universe 364
- The period of voidness 364
- The four periods reflected in the existence of an individual being 365
- The ceaseless continuity of the process of formation and destruction 366
APPENDIX 2 The bardo 369
- The four bardos 369
- The six uncertainties of the bardo of becoming 369
- How to benefit the consciousness of beings in the bardo 371
APPENDIX 3 The four truths 373
- Essential definitions and aspects of the four truths 373
- The meaning of the term "four truths" 374
- A sequential exposition of the four truths 374
APPENDIX 4 The five aggregates 377
APPENDIX 5 A Buddha's qualities of realization 387 The five aggregates 377
APPENDIX 6 The five paths and the thirty-seven elements leading to enlightenment 391
APPENDIX 7 The two truths 397
- The two truths according to the Madhyamika view 397
- The specificity of the two truths 398
- Their literal, etymological meaning 398
- Their necessarily binary character 399
- The kinds of cognition that validly ascertain the two truths 4 0 0
- Divisions and categories of the two truths 4 0 0
- The necessity and benefits of establishing the two truths 410
APPENDIX 8 The Madhyamika school 413
- The Svatantrika Madhyamikas 413
- The Prasangika Madhyamikas 417
- Establishing the ground Madhyamika 417
- Identifying the object oj rifutation: the two selves 421
- The difference between the "self" and "apprehension of (or clinging to) self" 421
- The difference between the "self" and "apprehension of (or clinging to) self" 421
- Ana9'sis through the application oj reason 4 2 2
- The four arguments 424
- An investigation of causes: the Diamond Splinters argument 425
- An investigation of results: no effects, whether existent or nonexistent, can be said to be produced 426
- An investigation of the causal process itself: a refutation of origination related to four possible alternatives 426
- An investigation into the nature of phenomena: the Great Interdependence argument and the argument of "Neither One nor Many" 427
- An investigation of causes: the Diamond Splinters argument 425
- Wiry the Madlryamika dialectic is superior to all other tenet systems 428
- The four arguments 424
- Establishing the ground Madhyamika 417
APPENDIX 9 The twenty-one qualities of Dharmakaya wisdom 431
APPENDIX 10 The three doors of perfect liberation 437
sury of Precious Qualities
7 teaching. According to the Shravakayana, this refers to the Buddha Shakya- muni and the various moments and geographical locations in which he ex- pounded the Dharma to his disciples. According to the Mahayana, this refers to the Sambhogakaya Buddhas, such as Vairochana, expounding the teachings of the Great Vehicle in various buddhafields, in the eternal present beyond time, to a vast retinue of Bodhisattvas residing on the tenth ground. In the Mahayana context, the five excellences are also called the "five cenainties" (ngts pa Inga). agos 'brtl )'an lag bzhi. "The fourfold interrelated purpose refers to a subject (brjoa h),a), its immediate purpose (agos pa), its ultimate finality (nying agos), and the connection between these three factors ('brtl ba). These four elements are considered essential for meaningful communication to take place. In this context, the subject is the practice of the gradual paths of the three kinds of beings. The immediate purpose is to provide an understanding of the path of liberation through a study of the text. The ultimate objective is the prac- titioner's attainment of the final goal. The connection refers to the fact that the previous three elements must be consistent with each other." [YG I, 179] These are: realization of the ultimate nature, the vision of the yidam (and, possibly, the reception of authorization), and a knowledge of the five sciences. The possession of one of these qualifications authorizes a person to compose shastras, or commentaries. "Asanga's Yogacharabhumi-shastra says: The three qualities of Buddhist composi- tions are that they are meaningful, are conducive to practice, and lead away from suffering. The six defects of non-Buddhist writings are that they are meaningless, false, of purely academic impon, sophistical, misleading, and lacking in compassion." [YG I, 176] rtsis mgoyan lag Inga, five important headings: mazaa pa po, lunggang nas btus, ph)'ogs gang au gtogs, bsaus aon, agos chta. This is how treatises were traditionally ex- plained by the panditas of the ancient Indian university of Nalanda. Buddhist teachings speak of four types of birth: from the womb, from an egg, spontaneous generation from warmth and moisture, and miraculous manifestation. "Generally speaking, there are three types of human existence: 'merely human' (mi Ius tsam po pa), as described in the text; 'special human existence' (mi Ius kh)'aa par can), i.e., in which actions and attitudes oscillate between virtue and negativity; and 'precious human existence' (mi Ius rin po cht), as explained here." [YG I, 182] mi g.)'O ba'i las. Mipham Rinpoche defines unwavering action as: "A positive action, such as a profound state of absorption devoid of bodhichitta, which infallibly, or 'unwaveringly' produces rebirth in the form or formless realms. Other actions are not unwavering in the sense that their result may, depending 8 9 10 II 12 13
on circumstances, ripen in states that are not normally expected from the action in question." [KJ, 80J
14 Beings are described as superior or noble when they have progressed beyond the path of seeing, in other words, when they have realized the absence of self or ego. All beings who have not done so (including the gods of the desire, form, and formless realms) are described as ordinary. The four samadhis of the form realm are subdivided into different levels. There are three such divisions in the first, second, and third samadhis. All of these are inhabited by "ordinary" beings. The fourth samadhi also has three levels of ordinary beings. In addition, however, it possesses five pure levels on which superior beings are said to dwell. On the last of these levels or, according to some authorities, on a yet higher, ninth, level (i.e., the seventeenth or eighteenth of the subdivisions of the entire form realm) are to be found the Bodhisattvas who are on the brink of full attainment. This is the realm of Akanishta the Fair, the dimension in which the Bodhisattvas spend their last life before achieving buddhahood. The insensate gods belong to the form realm but are different from the other gods of that dimension in being without perception. They are said to be "located" in the vicinity of the Great Fruit, the third level of the fourth samadhi, which is the highest attainment possible to ordinary beings in the form realm. In the case of the formless gods, no locations, even subtle ones, are spoken of. Only the formless gods and insensate gods are said to lack the freedom to practice Dharma. This is not so in the case of the gods of the form and desire realms, since it is said that Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas may manifest there. "The absorption of the insensate and the formless gods and that of the cessation enjoyed by Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas are similar in that both are characterized by a halting of the sense consciousnesses in the alaya, the fundamental level of the mind. They are, however, different in that the ab- sorption of the insensate gods does not involve the cessation of the defiled emotional consciousness (n)'on yid), whereas the cessation of the Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas does. For this reason, ordinary beings can only enter the absorption of nonperception, while the absorption of cessation is the preserve of Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas, practitioners of the Hinayana. Moreover, non-Buddhist traditions mistakenly regard the formless absorp- tions as liberation and train in them as their spiritual path. The Shravakas and Praryekabuddhas enter the absorption of cessation for the sake of con- tentment during their present lifetime. Sublime Bodhisattvas, by contrast, may enter it as an expedient, simply as a means of training in concentration." [YG I, 188J 15 This traditional scheme of eight freedoms (aal ba brgyaa) and ten advantages (rang gzhan 'bJ,or b(u) is supplemented in the writings of Longchenpa by two further lists o f hindering factors (each containing eight items) which must be absent if human existence is to be considered truly precious. They are taken NOTES 441
up and commented on by Patrul Rinpoche in The Woras of M), Perfect Teacher, pp. 30-31. First, there are eight obstructive circumstancts ('phral byung rk)'en gyi mi khom rnam pa brg)'aa) that prevent true practice of the Dharma. These are: great strength of the five negative emotions; great stupidity; the following of a false teacher; great indolence; strong obscurations arising from past negativity; a lack of independence; embracing Dharma for the sake of protection from worldly fears; and attempting to acquire wealth and prestige from a show of Dharma practice. Second, there are eight incompatible tendencies (ris chaa blo )'i mi khom rnam pa brg),aa). These are: being caught up in worldly activities; a lack of basic humanity; complacency with regard to the ills of samsara; a lack of faith in the teacher and the teachings; finding entertainment in what are negative actions; a lack of interest in spiritual values; the transgression of the pratimoksha vows (monastic ordination, etc.) and the bodhisattva vows; and the breach of tantric samaya. If any of these factors is present, the level of precious human existence has not been fully attained. 16 The body is said to be composed of the elements of earth, air, fire, and water, corresponding to the principles of solidity, movement, warmth, and liquidity. To these is added space, without which the others could not exist. When equilibrium between the elements is lost, a disease occurs. 17 bsoa nams cha mthun. This means virtuous actions performed in conjunction with a belief in the real existence of the self, both of persons and phenomena. Such actions are productive of happiness in samsara but do not lead beyond it. They are therefore to be contrasted with "virtuous action tending to libera- tion" (thar pa cha mthun), which produce liberation from samsara. 18 The thirty-two divine kings are the lesser gods of this heaven of which Indra is the ruler. 19 A full discussion of the primal substance prakriti and the doctrine of divine creation will be found in Khenchen Kunzang Pelden, The Nectar of Manjushri's Spuch, pp. 372-380. 20 "In the case of ordinary beings, it is hardly necessary to mention that igno- rance is the root of the three poisons. But it is said that until the 'defiled consciousness' is transmuted, the acquisition of higher qualities will also be hindered. By higher qualities is meant, for instance, the ability to visit pure buddhafields and the effortless arising of thought-transcending wisdom. And this is true even among those who are residing on the sublime Bodhisattva grounds." [DKRJ 21 See Patrul Rinpoche, The Woras ofmy Perfect Teacher, p. 73. 22 Vasubandhu, the author of the Abhiaharmakosha, is normally considered to have been a Sautrantika in his Hinayana period. However, his Abhiaharmakosha was composed from the Vaibhashika point of view. 23 In other words, "performed" (b.>'as) refers simply to the action as such;
"stored" (bsags) refers to intentionality, satisfaction, and so on, which ingrains the effect on the mindstream. H is Holiness the Dalai Lama says that the four permutations of the performed and stored aspects reveal whether the effect of an action will definitely be experienced. The first and third permutations indicate an action the effect of which is certain to be experienced. The other two permutations are not attended by the same degree of certainty. See Tht Dalai Lama at Harvard, p. 60.
24 The logic behind this is that the Three Jewels are the object of confession, whereby one may purify even the most heinous of negative actions. The gravity of reviling or repudiating the Three Jewels consists in the fact that one abandons the very object whereby purification is possible. 25 The three types of feeling are pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral. The three types of perception mentioned here are associated with the three realms (de- sire, form, and formless); they are: small, intermediate, and great. See appen- dix 4. 26 These are: to kill one's father, to kill one's mother, to kill an Arhat, to attack and injure a Buddha so as to draw blood, and to cause a schism in the Sangha. These actions are of immediate effect because they are so grave that their effect overrides any other karma, and at death the person concerned falls directly into hell without even passing through the bardo state. 27 All together, these five are: destroying a stupa, killing a Bodhisattva, killing a practitioner on the noble path, robbing the Sangha, and raping a female Arhat. 28 "In this context, mention is also made of sixteen grave actions and eight wrong actions: "Four gravely wrong actions (log pa'i lei ba): sitting above a learned person, accepting prostrations from a fully ordained monk, stealing the provisions of a meditator, and stealing the ritual implements of a mantrika. "Four gravely impairing actions (n)'ams pa'i lei ba): to swear coarsely by using the name of the Three Jewels, for ordained persons to act against shravaka discipline, for practitioners of the Mahayana to violate the precepts of the Bodhisattvas, and for practitioners of the Mantrayana to violate the samayas, or sacramental commitments. "Four gravely disrespectful actions (smad pa'i lei ba): out of ignorance to have contempt for the physical form of a Buddha, out of pride to have contempt for the qualities of learned people, out of jealousy to show con- tempt for what is truthfully said, and out ofpartiality to discriminate between religious schools. "Four gravely scornful actions (skur pa'i lei ba): cynically to condone wrong views, to condone the shedding of a Buddha's blood, arbitrarily to condemn one among equals and to make false and unfounded accusations. "Eight wrong actions (log pa brgyad): (I) to despise vinue; (2) to praise NOTES 443
nonvirtue; (3) to upset a virtuous person; (4) to interrupt the meritorious actions of a faithful person; (5) to abandon one's teacher; (6) to abandon one's yidam deity; (7) to abandon one's spiritual kindred; and (8) to violate the sacred mandala (i.e., the sadhana practice)." [YG I, 276J 29 "The mere failure to commit the ten negative actions, without having a con- scious spirit of restraint, is considered indeterminate (in other words, karmi- cally insignificant). Positive behavior is defined as the mind's conscious intention to reject negative practices and to adopt their opposites. These are the active protection of life, the practice of generosity, the perfect observance of the vows, the speaking of the truth, the reconciliation of disputes, peaceful and disciplined speech, speaking what is consonant with Dharma, satisfaction with little, loving attitudes toward others, belief in the doctrine of karma, and so on." [YG I, 283J 30 The Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas practice all these six vinues but without the complete wisdom of emptiness and the skillful means of bodhichitta. For this reason, the term paramitas or "perfections," is not used. 31 A practitioner on the path ofjoining passes through four stages as the realiza- tion of the path of seeing approaches. These are: warmth, peak, acceptance, and supreme mundane level. Until "peak" is gained, the practitioner is still prone to negative action. This is discussed at length in chapter 6. 32 Excerpt taken from Yonten Gyamtso, YG I, 296. 33 Sadness (sk)'o ba) in this context is considered a positive quality. Its impor- tance lies in the fact that it gives rise to renunciation, the desire, indeed the decision, to leave samsara. 34 This well-known story, also recounted in Tht Words of My Ptrftcl Ttachtr, de- scribes the occasion when Arya Katyayana saw a man sitting with his child on his knee. He was in the act of eating some fish, and in order to chase away a dog that was gnawing at the leftovers, he threw a stone at it. Due to the clairvoyance gained as a side effect of his meditative practice, Katyayana per- ceived that the baby was the rebirth of the man's worst enemy. The man's dead parents had fallen into the lower realms but, due to karmic links, were still drawn to him in his present existence. Thus the fish that he was eating was the rebinh of his father, while the dog had been his mother-who in ignorance was gnawing at the bones of her former husband! 35 "And beings who give up and revile the Doctrine." [DKR] 36 "Fifty human years are equivalent to one day in the heaven of the Four Great Kings. Five hundred years in that state correspond to a single day in the Reviving Hell, and here beings live for five hundred of their own years. The life span of the different hells gradually increases until, in the Hell of Great Heat, it lasts for half an intermediate kalpa and in the Hell of Torment Unsurpassed an entire intermediate kalpa." [YG I, 311J
37 For examples of this last point, see Patrul Rinpoche, Tht Words of My Ptrjtct TtachtT, pp. 70ff.
38 Excerpt taken from YOnten Gyamtso, YG I, 335. 39 It is from the time when the sense organs develop that the fetus starts to experience discomfort. 40 "When the pain of illness manifests in the aggregate ofform, fuling experiences it, ptrctption cognizes it as suffering, conditioningfactors produce future suffering of the same kind, and consciousntss is aware of the entire process." [YG I, 343J 41 "The Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas know that all existents (the universe and creatures) are like the shimmering of a mirage, a flash of lightning, the fiery path of a torch whirled in the air. They are constantly fluctuating, evanescent, and painful by their nature. Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas un- derstand also that these very "sufferings" are unaccompanied by a self and thereby eradicate the ignorance of wrongly conceiving otherwise. They sever the stream of karma and emotion and reach the state that is beyond all suffering, inwardly relying on the wisdom that realizes no-self, which is itself the truth of path. The Suhrlltkha says: Birth is suffering, and the cause of this Is craving. The abolition of this cause Is freedom or cessation-gained By following the Eightfold Noble Path. "In the same way that people riding in a chariot progress to their destination, by recognizing (suffering), discarding (its origins), realizing (cessation), and implementing (the path), practitioners practice and gradually progress through the five paths of the Hinayana. This way of proceeding occurs also in the Mahayana, and it is vital to understand it. Vasubandhu advises us to bind our minds with the vows of Pratimoksha, to hear and study the general instructions and the special teachings on no-self, and to meditate on this until deep conviction is attained. To this end, we should destroy the twenty wrong views associated with identifying the perishable aggregates as the 'I,' ponder- ing well the sense of Nagarjuna's Suhrlltkha: Form is not the 'I,' the Lord has said, and 'I' Is not possessed of form. Within the 'I,' the form Does not inhere, and form is not the dwelling place of 'I.' The other aggregates, please understand, are likewise void. "Firmly convinced of this, the Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas follow the Eightfold Noble Path. This comprises Right View, a stainless wisdom free from the afflictions; Right Livelihood, the abandonment of all evil ways of making a living; Right Effort, the four genuine restraints; Right Mindfulness, which is not to forget the object of concentration and its accompanying attitudes, in other words, the four close mindfulnesses; Right Concentration, NOTES 445
the four samadhis and so forth, the foundation of the Noble Path; Right Speech, the four positive verbal actions; Right Conduct, the repudiation of the three negative actions of the body; and Right Thought, virtuous states of mind such as benevolence.... "The attainment of liberation depends exclusively upon one's own efforts. In the Suhrlltkha, Nagarjuna says: Freedom thus depends upon yourself, No friend can help you to accomplish it. Work hard in learning, concentration, discipline, And in the four truths train yourself." [YG I, 358J 42 Nirvana with remainder occurs when cessation takes place in the course of the practitioner's life. The skandhas of that life (the remainder) continue until the karmic seeds that are the cause of its existence are exhausted. The Arhat then dies, at which point nirvana without remainder occurs. All karma is exhausted and the impure psychophysical continuum terminates. 43 See Khenchen Kunzang Pelden, Tht Ntctar ofManjushri's Spttch, p. 342. "(Arhats) do have a nonafflictive ignorance-as the Shravakas themselves admit-on account of which, the knowledge of objects is impeded through the effects of time and space. . . . Since they do not have a perfect realization of emptiness ... , their minds are still ... attached to ideas such as "Samsara is to be abandoned" and "Nirvana is to be sought." 44 Excerpt taken from Yonten Gyamtso, YG I, 362. 45 The principle of dependent arising (rttn 'brtl bcu gn)Iis), also referred to as the law of interdependence, is one of the most imponant and profound of the Buddha's teachings. It describes twelve factors, linked interdependently, in the form of a cycle that revolves without beginning or ending. The fact that ignorance is posited as the first link does not mean that it is a permanently existent first cause. It is, however, the main factor, together with craving and grasping. If this is eliminated, the entire cycle is interrupted. The twelve links of dependent arising do not imply causality in a strictly chronological se- quence. In the production of a plant, for instance, the principal factor is the seed, but many other conditions, such as soil, moisture, and warmth, must also coexist and be present. Likewise cenain links in the cycle must coincide (chronologically). There are many traditional ways of explaining this princi- ple, both from the standpoint of the Theravada, such as in Buddhaghosha's Visuddhimagga or Sammohavinodani, and also from the Mahayana perspective, such as Asanga's Abhidharmasamuccha)'a. This is only the bare outline of a pro- found and difficult subject. 46 In other words, Buddhism denies the existence of a Creator in the biblical sense, as well as that of the unmoved mover of Aristotelian philosophy. In fact, the belief in a creator god, or first cause, arises from an incorrect under- standing of the nature of phenomena. For a more extensive treatment of this
subject, see Khenchen Kunzang Pelden, Tht Ntctar of Manjushri's Spttch, pp. 372-380.
47 Mipham Rinpoche explains: "It is possible to conceive of the cycle of twelve links unfolding within the time period required for the completion ofa single action (bya ba razogs pa'i skaa c;g.) In the case of killing, for instance, it is through Ignoranct that one becomes involved in the action. Conaitioning Factors are the action itself. Consciousntss is the awareness in the moment of the action. Namt ana Form and the (six) Stnsts of that instant produce Contact with the weapon etc. Ftt/ing is the experience of one's own satisfaction and the suffering of the other. Craving is represented by the willful engagement in the satisfac- tion and suffering just mentioned. This leads to Grasping, i.e., an enthusiasm for similar events in the future. Btcoming refers to the aggregates of the entire instant of the action, and this leads to the Birth of the present and future aspects of the experience, which in turn passes through a period of transfor- mation (Aging) and conclusion (Dtath)." [KJ, 52-53] 48 See the remarks on Maudgalyayana and Kubja the Small in Khenchen Kun- zang Pelden, Tht Ntctar ofManjushri's Spttch, p. 341. 49 "Indeed, the entire range of teachings, from the vehicle of the Shravakas to those of the Natural Great Perfection, have one meaning only, that of depen- dent arising. And at all times, the meaning remains the same, the only differ- ence lying in the manner in which it is imparted and explained to beings." [DKRJ 50 "The Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas exhibit strong partiality in adopting the truths of path and cessation and in rejecting the truths of suffering and origin. While engaged in uprooting ignorance, the root of existence, they do not fully realize the nature of dependent arising. It is said in the Kash)'apa-paripriccha-sutra, 'The emptiness that they realize is like the hole left by a worm in a mustard seed: Thus the Hinayana is simply a suppon for the path of the Mahayana. The ultimate result transcends all discrimination, that is, adoption or rejection in respect of the karmic law of cause and effect, which is itself an imputation of beings of lesser capacity. The ultimate result transcends the mind, mental factors, and their objects, all of which characterize such imputation. It is a nirvana that does not abide in either extreme, whether of samsara or the peace of cessation. The principal goal to be attained is thus the absolute truth, the ultimate nature of phenomena. This result manifests when the self-knowing wisdom directly and fully understands the primordial "unbornness" of phe- nomena, phenomena artificially assened or reified as the four truths, and the twelvefold chain of dependent arising, in other words, when it realizes their ultimate nature that lies beyond existence. Self-knowing wisdom understands this in a manner that transcends the intellect, where all concepts of subject and object subside. In what way are phenomena nonexistent? Given that phenom- ena produced through interdependence have no absolute existence, suffering itself is also without ultimate existence. The MuLtmaahyamaka-karika says: 'How NOTES 447
could there be a suffering that does not arise through interdependence? What is impermanent is said to be suffering. Suffering has no inherent existence' (xxiv, 21). Since an effect does not occur, there is no cause (for it). The Mula- rnadh).arnaka-karika (xxiv, 22) says: 'If suffering exists inherently, how could it be produced?' And it is illogical to attribute the possibility of cessation to what inherently exists. 'Cessation of an inherently existent suffering is absurd (xxiv, 23): Since things to be abandoned and their antidote cannot meet, there cannot be a path. It is said, 'If the past and future instants meet, the indivisible instant must have two parts. If these two parts are simultaneous, it follows that one kalpa and one instant become the same.' Even the four truths do not have inherent existence. It is said in the Lankavatara-sutra: The unborn is the only truth While 'Four truths' is the talk of mere children. For those abiding in the essence of enlightenment, Not one is found, why speak of four? Phenomena arising in interdependence are merely our mistaken perceptions, nothing more. Their nature is utterly pure (empty). Knowing this, it is a mistake to cling to phenomena, preferring some and rejecting others." [YG I, 376] 51 O f the "three purities," the first is the fact that the alms gift does not derive from wrong livelihood. The second is that the act of giving itself should be done openly without wrong intention. The third is that the donor is happy with the act and without regret. 52 This is a summary translation of the quotation. The sense of the Tibetan terms rna brtag, rna bslangs, rna bskul is difficult to interpret. For meat to be considered pure, three criteria are necessary: (I) the consumers must have seen that the animal in question was not killed specially for them; (2) they must have heard it from a trustworthy source that the animal was not slaughtered for food for their specific consumption; and (3) they must have no doubt that this is so. Subject to these conditions, one is allowed to eat meat. An- other, more stringent, oral tradition stipulates the following criteria. The consumer must: (I) see that the animal has died a natural death; (2) have it on trustworthy report that this is the case; or (3) have no suspicion that the animal was intentionally slaughtered. 53 According to a tradition going back to the Buddha himself, the seat of a forest hermit is made of kusha grass. 54 The historical duration of the Buddha's teaching is said to consist of four major periods. First there is the "period of fruit" immediately following the promulgation of the Doctrine by the Buddha, when people who practiced it attained realization with great speed. There then follows the "period of prac- tice," when people have to practice in order to gain the result. In the third "period of transmission," the Dharma is merely transmitted. At this time, only a few people practice it, and those who gain the result are extremely
rare. Finally, in the residual fourth "period of signs," the Dharma is main- tained only in its external signs.
55 Approach, accomplishment, and activation are different phases of the sadhana practice. See glossary. 56 There was once an old frog who lived in well. One day, he was visited by another frog who lived by the sea. The two frogs fell into conversation and began to compare their different dwelling places. Unable to comprehend that there could exist something more vast and grand than his humble well, which for him was the summit of excellence and comfort, the old frog was per- suaded to make the journey to see the ocean for himself. When he arrived there, the immensity of the sea terrified him so much that his head split open with shock! 57 "People belonging to the first category are disciples who are able to benefit themselves and others. The teacher should instruct them unreservedly. As for those belonging to the other categories, the teacher should use every possible skillful means to draw them onto the authentic path. And, even if the attempt fails, the teacher must continue to care for them lovingly, by means of prayers of aspiration, so that they might become disciples in the future, by virtue of their connection." [YG I, 426J 58 "Even though the teacher has no need or desire for offerings, you should offer him or her everything that you like most. It is said in the spy; mao, 'My kingdom and my body, my children, spouse and wealth, my best possessions that I cherish most, I offer to the holy one.' Limitless merit accrues from this, for it is the teacher who introduces you to the Dharmakaya of the Buddhas. The agongs pa 'aus pa says that offerings made for thousands of kalpas to thousands of Buddhas cannot match a thousandth part of a single drop of sandalwood oil offered for the anointing of a single pore of the teacher's body. If you are poor, a small offering made with a perfect and sincere attitude will equally perfect the accumulation of merit. It is important to make an offering proportionate with what you have." [YG I, 431J 59 "The reason that practice is considered the best kind of service is that it fulfills the true purpose of the teacher's presence. All teachers, from Buddha Shakyamuni onward, have expounded the Dharma for one reason only: that beings might be liberated. Failure to practice their teachings frustrates this end." [YG I, 433J 60 Infinite purity of phenomena refers to a vajrayana realization that appear- ances, sound, and thoughts are the mandalas of the deities, mantras, and wisdom. 61 "What we call 'time' is an imputation relating to the sequence of moments as perceived by every being individually and posited in relation to a point that is actually being experienced. This is labelled 'the present: and the past and future are the names given to preceding and subsequent events respec- NOTES 449
tively. Time in itself has no intrinsic existence of its own. Just as when dreaming, the mind arranges temporal sequences of different length, in the same way it assigns events to the past, present and future in the waking state. On the ultimate level, however, in the fundamental state of things, no phenomena terminate in the 'past,' no phenomena occur in the 'present' and no events supervene in the 'future.' To be 'learned in the three times' means to understand their 'equality.' With this in mind, one can then go on to posit the so-called 'inconceivable fourth time' in addition to the past, present and future. For one understands that the temporary and spatial categories are mere imputations and one integrates the ultimate reality, the equality of ev- erything." [KJ, 67]
62 One should perhaps be aware of a tendency to interpret refuge in a "theistic" sense, involving a reliance on a kind of supernatural power. The idea of taking refuge in the Buddha naturally involves an expectancy that the Buddha will bestow protection. He does indeed. But this is not some sort of ready- made liberation, handed down as a reward. The Buddha does not grant salva- tion. He explains suffering and the causes of suffering and expounds the path to freedom. It is for the disciples to follow. They in turn are liberated from suffering by understanding its nature and themselves uprooting its causes. Thus, rather than being an appeal to divine grace, the true taking of refuge is the commitment to undertake the path whereby the disciples liberate them- selves. 63 Obviously, the English word "faith" has connotations deriving from the Judeo-Christian tradition. It is used here to translate the Tibetan word dad pa, which certainly shares some of these connotations but extends beyond them, as is explained in the text. 64 'phags pa'i rigs. This is a reference to the Arya lineage. According to the Hina- yana, it indicates persons who have few desires; who are content with what they have in the way offood, clothing, and dwelling places; and who persevere in purifying negativities and gaining realization. This lineage (or proclivity) is so called because it brings beings to the level of the Aryas. 65 Shuracharya, otherwise known as Ashvaghosha, was an Indian Brahmin very much opposed to the Buddhadharma. He challenged the great pandita Arya- deva in debate, the stakes being that the loser would embrace the tradition of the winner. Ashvaghosha was summarily defeated and was so ashamed that he decided to commit suicide by throwing himself into the Ganges. Aryadeva discovered this and, sending some monks to capture him, had him locked up in the monastery library. Eventually, Ashvaghosha calmed down, and becom- ing a trifle bored, set about reading the texts. After a time, he was so im- pressed and moved by the expositions of the Dharma that he underwent a wholehearted conversion. In the course ofhis reading, he discovered a proph- ecy about himself, to the effect that he was to write a life story of the Buddha. Ashvaghosha was in fact an important poet in the history o f Sanskrit 450 NOTES
literature, and the Buaahacharita, a biography of the Buddha in verse, was com- posed by him.
66 It is easy for Western readers to interpret this kind of formulation as an "exhortation to martyrdom," which is in fact quite at odds with the Buddhist spirit. The notion of orthodoxy, in the sense of an ideology commanding notional assent, is of no importance in Buddhism, where all the emphasis is placed on inner conviction as the motivating force of genuine spiritual transformation. Thus, the meaning of irreversible faith is to be found not in expressions of belief adhered to doggedly in a confessional sense, but in an inner conviction that is so profound as to be ineradicable, irrespective of whatever verbal formulations might be wrung from unwilling lips. This point is best illustrated by the story, quoted in The Woras oj M), Perfect Teacher (pp. 185-186), of an Indian lay practitioner who was threatened with death if he did not repudiate his refuge in the Three Jewels. "I can only renounce taking refuge with my mouth. I am incapable of doing so with my heart." The man was executed and accepted death willingly, even though "dying for the faith" was not his principal objective. 67 In this context, the four truths must be understood not as general principles but as classes of phenomena. Thus, one speaks not of the truth of suffering but rather of true sufferings, true origins, and so on, referring thereby to the phenomenal world. In this particular instance, the focus is on the five aggre- gates. See appendix 3. 68 It is, however, enough to understand the points just explained, which apply mainly to the first two truths of suffering and origins. According to Khenpo Perna Sherab, some authorities maintain that these ten factors cannot truly militate against the truth of path, because the latter is the wisdom of no-self and therefore the very antidote to the ten factors. 69 "There are innumerable kinds of thought that veil the essential nature of the mind. All, however, can be grouped under two general headings: (I) miscon- ceptions superimposed on 'what is the case' (sgro btags) and (2) innate or coemergent thought patterns (/han skyes) of clinging to a supposed 'I' and 'mine.' The conceived objects (zhen )'ul) of both these ways of thinking (i.e., superimpositions and innate thought patterns) are the two 'selves': the 'self' of persons and the 'self' of phenomena. These two selves are apprehended and clung to by these two kinds of thought. All artificially imputed concep- tions of self are eliminated by the wisdom of the path of seeing, the direct understanding of reality. The conceptions of self that are the object of the innate thought patterns are eliminated by the wisdom of the path of medita- tion, which is the sustained training and familiarization of the mind in the wisdom gained on the path of seeing. The wisdom of the Mahayana paths of seeing and meditation destroys emotional obscurations such as avarice, as well as the cognitive obscurations, which are the notions of a truly existent subject, object, and action, together with their connected tendencies. This, NOTES 451
then, is how the qualities of elimination are perfected. Thus, the term spangs pa in the root verse may be interpreted as referring to both the superimposi- tions and the innate thought patterns that are eliminated. Alternatively, the spangs pa may be understood not as what is to be eliminated but as the elimina- tor, namely, wisdom. Just as the banishing of the miseries of samsara can be understood as the positive state of deliverance, liberation, or nirvana, in the same way, the wisdoms of seeing and meditation may be understood not merely as antidotes to their corresponding defects, but as the wisdom or freedom in which such defects have no place. It is therefore correct to inter- pret the root verse by saying that emotional and cognitive obscurations are destroyed by two kinds of wisdom." [YG I, 482]
70 Care should be taken with the word "innate," the translation of /han sk)'ts. It is used here to refer to contents, or rather proclivities, that are already present in the mind at binh and which are to be distinguished from the false imputa- tions or ideas that are freshly made or entertained in each new lifetime (under the influence of false tenet systems). Both artificial imputations (kwn brtags) and innate thought patterns (/han skyts) are kinds of emotional obscuration (n)Ion sgrib). Anificial imputations are relatively shallow. They arise conceptu- ally and are comparatively easy to remove. On the other hand, innate thought patterns are much stronger, being a conditioning from previous existences (an example would be an aggressive tendency already deep-rooted in the temperament of a small child). The cognitive obscurations (shts sgrib) also consist of anificial imputations and innate thought patterns, but in this con- text they are usually referred to as gross and subtle obscurations, respectively. The former are eliminated on the path of seeing, while the latter disappear only in the course of the path of meditation. 71 The Hinayana path of meditation consists of the progressive stages of the development of meditative absorption. Obviously, the samadhis of form and the formless absorptions can be cultivated before the (supramundane) path of seeing is reached. For they can be attained by non-Buddhist meditators, although in their case, since the wisdom ofemptiness (i.e., the path ofseeing) is absent, such accomplishments do not result in liberation from samsara. This is why it is said in the H inayana that practitioners may cultivate the higher absorptions while at the same time working toward the path of seeing and before they achieve this. Those who do this are said to be on the path of "leap over," the implication being that, when they attain the path of seeing, they leap over the stages of the path of meditation that they have already accomplished. Those on the path of "leap over" are either Once Returners or Nonreturners. Thus it can be said that the second and third Hinayana levels can be attained by the worldly path, while the first and founh are attained only by the transmundane path. 72 "This is the 'Path without obstacles.' " [DKRJ 73 "This is the 'Path of liberation.' " [DKRJ 452 NOTES
74 "This is the 'Path without obstacles.' " [DKR]
75 In the early phase of Buddhism in India, distinct communities had developed in culturally diverse regions. At the time of the king Ashoka there were four main traditions: Sarvastivada, Mahasanghika, Sthavira, and Sammitiya (see note 179). These further divided into eighteen schools, which were asserted as valid Dharma traditions by the council held under the king Kanishka's patronage. For a detailed treatment of the subject, see Tarthang Tulku, Light oj Liberation, C,)'stal Mirror, vol. 8. 76 The term "instant" may be understood in two senses. It may refer to the smallest unit of time (dus mtha'i skad cig) or to the period of time required for the accomplishment of a given action (bJ'a ba rdzogs pa'i skad cig). The latter is necessarily variable. It may correspond to something as brief as a finger- snap, or it may encompass the period extending from the first generation of bodhichitta to the full attainment of buddhahood. In the grub mtha' mdzod, the omniscient Longchenpa says that the four truths are realized in sixteen in- stants of the second kind. In other words, they are realized in the course of sixteen successive occasions (of varying length). In this context, "instants of discernment" (so sor rtog pa'i skad cig) are the instants necessary for the cognition of each of the sixteen aspects of the four truths. The "instant of absolute reality" (de kho na n)lid k)'i skad cig) is the moment in which absolute reality is realized. 77 "Nagarjuna's tradition states that the system of sixteen instants is used to describe how wisdom arises in meditation, while Asanga's tradition uses it to show how incontrovertible knowledge arises in the post-meditation period. These two ways do not in fact contradict each other; both should be upheld by the followers of the Mahayana." [DKR] 78 "As reported by practitioners of meditation." [DKR] 79 This potential is, of course, innate. It is on the basis of innate thought tenden- cies that false imputations can develop. Indeed, there is something predictable about false tenet systems in the sense that they exhibit certain common fea- tures, which are in tum coordinated with the inveterate self-clinging of the ordinary mind. 80 "Namely, the assertions of mistaken tenets regarding the causal relationships that underpin samsara and nirvana." [DKR] 81 "All other thoughts (i.e., other than the tenets of mistaken systems) derive from the misapprehension of sense data." [DKR] 82 "There are ten meanings of the word 'dharma' (chos). Six apply to phenomena; four apply to the sacred Doctrine. The first six are: (I) phenomenon or knowledge object; (2) mental object; (3) life span; (4) future time; (5) cer- tainty; and (6) religion (religious tradition). The four that apply to the sacred tradition are: (I) scriptures, or the Dharma of transmission; (2) meritorious NOTES 453
action or skillful means, such as generosity; (3) the path or wisdom of under- standing emptiness; and (4) nirvana, or freedom of all that is to be aban- doned." [YG I, 503J
83 "One should know that the truth of cessation has three aspects: it cannot be conceived by the conventional mind; it is the arresting of karma and emo- tions; and it is the absence of mistaken mental processes. The truth of path also has three aspects: it is free from obscurations; it is clear wisdom; and it acts as a remedy for all opposing forces." [YG I, 50 4J 84 "Thetwelvebranches(gsungrabyanlagbeugnyis)ofthescripturesare: I. mdo sde: sutra, discourses on a single topic. 2. dbyangs bsn)'ad: poetic epitome or summaries in verse of teachings existing at greater length in prose. 3. lung bstan: prophecies. 4. tshigs bead: discourses in verse. 5. ehed du brjod pa: teachings not requested by anyone but spoken intentionally by the Buddha in order to propagate the Dharma. 6. glmg gzhi: instructions given in the context of specific events (as often happened with the Vinaya). 7. 8. 9. 10. II. rtogs brjod: life stories of certain contemporaries of the Buddha. de Ita bu "'ung ba: historical accounts. sk)'es rabs: previous lives of the Buddha. shin tu rgyas pa: long expositions of the vast and profound teachings. rmad byung: extraordinary unprecedented expositions of the profound teachings. 12. gtan dbab: topics of specific knowledge that clinch the meaning of all the Vinaya and the sutras; the classification of samsaric phenomena, such as aggregates, dhatus, ayatanas; the outline of the phenomena of the path: grounds and paths of realization, concentrations; and the enumeration of the phenomena of the result: kayas, wisdoms, etc." [YG I, 50 5J 85 "The presentation of the four pitakas is asserted also by Aryadeva, Long- chenpa, Terdag Lingpa, and others. Some consider that this collection of the Mantrayana is included in the Abhidharma." [YG I, 50 7J 86 It is for this reason that in the Buddhist tradition the greatest respect is paid to books and manuscripts. Books are never placed on the ground but always in a clean and elevated place. In the same spirit, practitioners take care not to step on texts or walk over them, and when necessary dispose of them by burning, ideally accompanying such actions with the recitation of mantra. 87 "Generally speaking, the Dharma of realization refers to the three trainings of the path. There is not a single Dharma of realization in the traditions of the sutras or the mantras that is not included in one of the three trainings. It is wrong to think that if one's view is high, one does not need discipline, or 454 NOTES
on the other hand that the practices of union and liberation of the Mantra- yana are in conflict with the discipline. It is also wrong to think that the phases of generation and perfection are different from the trainings in con- centration and wisdom. If one regards the three vehicles and the path of the Mantrayana as being in conflict, and if one does not know that all the realiza- tions of the grounds and paths are included within the three trainings, one is lost in ignorance." [YG I, 508J
88 The mandala of the three seats (gaan gsum tshang ba'i altJ'ii 'khor) is: (I) the aggregates and elements, which are the seat of the male and female dhyani Buddhas; (2) the sense organs and their objects, which are the seat of the male and female Bodhisattvas; and (3) the bodily members, which are the seat of the wrathful male and female deities. 89 See appendix 9. 90 These are called mthar gyis gnas pa'i sn)'oms Jug agu. These consist of the four samadhis of form and the four formless absorptions, and the absorption of cessation. 91 Excerpt taken from Yonten Gyamtso, YG I, 519-527. 92 See note 266. 93 "The various systems of the enumerations of the grounds of the resultant vehicle are simply ways of labeling the different aspects of the three kayas or the qualities of the Buddha. They do not imply progression as in the case of the expository vehicle of causality (i.e., the bodhisattva grounds on the paths of seeing and meditation)." [YG I, 52 7J 94 "Indeed, that which is commonly referred to as 'Dharma' is not some truly existent entity; it is merely the qualities of realization in the minds of individ- uals on the paths of learning and no more learning." [YG I, 528J 95 "The noble Shravakas rid themselves of the erroneous idea that the aggregates and other phenomena are permanent and discrete entities. They understand that they are momentary and mere gatherings ofelements. Ridding themselves of the personal self, which is nothing more than a merely conceived object (zhtn )'UO, they free themselves of the obscurations of the emotions. In addi- tion to this, the Pratyekabuddhas realize the emptiness of the percept, but not that of the perceiving consciousness. Noble Bodhisattvas understand that all phenomena included within samsara and nirvana are like space, primordi- ally beyond all conceptual constructions. They know that not even the names of these two conceived objects, namely, the two types of self (personal and phenomenal) exist. In this way, they have an unhindered capacity for dispel- ling the two types of obscurations." [YG I, 528J 96 Excerpt taken from YOnten Gyamtso, YG I, 529. 97 "I. On the (H inayana) path of joining, the practitioner definitively acquires NOTES 455
the character of Shravaka. This ground is therefore called the Ground of the Shravaka Character (rigs kyi sa).
"2. The stage of 'Candidates for the Degree of Stream Enterer' is called the Eighth Ground (brgyaa pa'i sa). (Note that this refers to the Eighth Ground of the Aryas.) "3. The stage of 'Stream Enterer Abiding by the Result' is called the Ground of Seeing (mthong ba'i sa), because the practitioner has for the first time penetrated the significance of the four truths. "4. The stage of 'Once Returner Abiding by the Result' is called the Ground of Fineness (srab pa'i sa), for the beings residing on it have abandoned every degree of desire except the three most subtle ones. "5. The stage of'Nonreturner Abiding by the Result' is the Ground Free from Desire ('aoa (hags aang bral ba'i sa), for the practitioner has abandoned all nine degrees of desire. "6. Arhats reside upon the Ground of Realization of the Work (byas pa rtogs pa'i sa), for all labors for the accomplishment of the goal have now been com- pleted. There arises the wisdom of knowing that the obscurations related to the three realms are exhausted and that samsaric birth is henceforth impossible. "7. Candidates for the levels of Once Returner, Nonreturner and arhatship abide on the Shravaka Ground (nyan thos kJ'i sa). "8. Finally, in addition to the above, the eight levels of candidate and abiders by the result, as attained on the Pratyekabuddha path, are counted as a single ground: the Ground of Pratyekabuddhas (rang sangs rgyas kyi sa)." [YG I, 532J 98 These are referred to as the "Outer Sangha." The "Inner Sangha" comprises the dakinis, dakas, and wisdom Dharma protectors. 99 "The Dharma of transmission has to be abandoned in the same way as a boat is left behind when the far shore is reached. All the compounded aspects of the truth of the path are changing and ultimately false, while the cessation as described in the Shravakayana is a state of extinction. Finally, the three types of Sangha still have certain obscurations to discard (and are thus not immune from fears). Thus the sole and ultimate refuge is buddhahood (i.e., our own buddhahood)." [YG I, 537] 100 "In addition to the Three Jewels as identified previously, the main deity of the mandala is considered as Buddha; the four or six classes of tantra, together with the generation and perfection-stage practices, are the Dharma; while the dakinis, dakas, and protectors living in the twenty-four sacred places, thirty- two lands, and eight charnel grounds are the Sangha." [YG I, 539] 101 "These five pathways are mentioned in the batn gnyis shing rta, Jigme Lingpa's autocommentary to the TrtasuIJ' oj Prtcious Qualitits, but I have not found them discussed anywhere else. According to the explanations I received from my own teachers, the path oj artam refers to the period after deep sleep when, in a 456 NOTES
state of deluded nonconceptual consciousness, various perceptions of places, mental states, and other beings follow each other in quick succession. The path of habitual tendencies refers to the instinctual traces left behind by actions that have already yielded their fully ripened effect. They linger behind, mani- festing as the recollection of places, mental states, and beings in any of the six realms, high or low, where one has once taken birth. The path ofkarma refers to the propelling positive, negative, or unwavering actions performed in the corporeal form one has assumed. The path of unetrtain jttlings refers to various types of suffering in the bardo of becoming, due to the six uncertain- ties. The path ofunetrtain tjjtcts ofcauses means that, though positive and negative actions are never wasted and always ripen into their respective results due to the infallibility of dependent arising, nevertheless, some variety may appear in their ripened effect, for the simple reason that they are compounded phe- nomena. For example, if an evildoer makes a proper confession or implements some other strong antidote, the full effect of the action committed will be attenuated. Conversely, a positive action (i.e., one that is conditioned by the impure view of inherent existence) may be overwhelmed by anger, with the result that its effect will not ripen." [YG I, 544J
102 This means that refuge is the basis of the path by means of which negativities will be successively purified. It does not mean the automatic and sudden removal of evil karma by the act of taking refuge. 10~ "Given that this is true, one might wonder whether the so-called seventy protectors and others of that kind should be admitted as protectors of the Dharma. It is incorrect to place one's trust in them without placing reliance also in the Three Jewels, or to consider them as superior to the Three Jewels. On the other hand, if one makes offerings to them as though to friends who help in the performance of spiritual activities, considering them as the agents of enlightened action, not only is there no fault, but it is highly beneficial." [YG I, 558J 104 "Just as the carcass of an elephant contains within it the precious bezoar, and the carcass of the musk deer contains the musk, even ordained people who have no discipline are on a higher level than those who have no vows. The reason for this is that their former merit (generated when they took their vows) will give a good result. In the future, they will attain the level of N onreturner in one of the three vehicles. This happens thanks to the past aspirations of the Buddha." [YG I, 560J 105 "At the moment of death, whatever habits one has acquired in the course of one's life will arise. To remember the Three Jewels at the time of death, even if one has done no other practice, is extremely important. It is said in the Samadhiraja-sutra: 'Constantly praise the Buddhas with pure thought, word, and deed. If you become used to this, you will see the Protector of the World, during the day and even at night. And when, one day, after illness and pain, NOTES 457
the suffering of death comes to you, your recollection of the Buddha will not weaken. The feelings of pain will not overwhelm it.' " [YG I, 563]
106 "Even if one does not abandon the Three Jewels, if in comparing them with non-Buddhist teachers and teachings one has some hesitations, or if one thinks that there is only a slight difference between them, this is very close to giving up the refuge." [YG I, 565] 107 go La'i rlung. According to traditional Buddhist cosmology, this is a belt of wind energy around Mount Meru which supports the celestial mansions of the sun and moon. 108 "The Chittamatra tradition speaks of the Shravakayana, Pratyekabuddhayana, and Bodhisattvayana as three final vehicles. It asserts that those who 1,' their type belong to the Hinayana are, as it were, 'predestined' to the definitive and irreversible attainment of the result of their path. Those, however, whose type is uncertain will first engage in the Hinayana and then enter the Mahayana. However, the Madhyamika tradition asserts that, though practitioners who belong to the Hinayana are temporarily alienated from the Mahayana, and though there are specific character types corresponding to each of the three vehicles, nevertheless all beings without exception will ultimately attain en- lightenment through the path of the Mahayana. Some beings are able to train in the Mahayana from the first because their attitude is vast and they are drawn to the teachings on emptiness. Others can enter the Mahayana after training in the Hinayana. Finally, there are those beings who will do so only after attaining the final result of their original path. The Chandrapradipa-sutra says: 'All beings without exception have the buddha-seed. There is no being who is an improper vessel for it.' " [YG II, 9] The "buddha-seed," or potential or essence of buddhahood, is a concept central to the Tathagatagarbha-sutras of the third turning of the Dharma wheel, Maitreya's Uttaratantra-shastra, as well as to Nagarjuna's Stotras of the second turning of the wheel. Just as butter is potentially present in milk, so too is buddhahood present in beings. The Gandavyuha-sutra says: "Children of the Conquerors! The seed of the Bodhisattva is the dharmadhatu, vast as space and naturally luminous. The Bodhisattvas who recognized this in the past, those who will recognize it in the future, and those who recognize it now, take birth in the family of the Buddhas." And the Uttaratantra-shastra says: "The luminous nature of the mind is unchanging like space." Commenting on this in his grub mtha' mdzod (pp. 161-162), omniscient Longchenpa says, "This naturally pure expanse is the absolute truth, self-arising wisdom. In its contaminated or veiled condition, it is referred to as 'lineage' (rigs), 'seed,' 'element' (khams), or 'tathagatagarbha or buddha-potential' (de bzhin gshegs pa'i snying po). When it is unveiled, it is called the 'fully enlightened mind' (b)'ang chub kyi sems) or 'Tathagata' (de bzhin gshegs pa)." The buddha nature of all beings is unchanging and free from defect. Not only is it untainted throughout the entire process of samsara, but it is also 458 NOTES
possessed of all qualities of wisdom, and these are inalienable from it, just as light is indissociable from the sun. For these qualities to manifest, the veils that obscure the buddha nature must be removed, just as the clouds have to be blown away for the sun to appear. It is possible for these veils to be removed because they lack intrinsic existence. They are by nature empty, "self-empty," or rang stong. Once they are dispelled, however, the ultimate reality, or buddha nature, will shine forth. This nature is replete with every quality of wisdom and is by nature free from every stain, from everything extrinsic to it. As such, it is empty of other, or gzhan stong. (Note: the stains are rang stong, a nonaffirming negative; the nature of the mind is gzhan stong, an affirming negative.) The fact that the mind is in its nature utterly immaculate implies that there is essentially no difference between Buddhas and ordinary beings. In the Buddhas, the mind subsists immaculate and unstained; in be- ings, the mind is clouded with adventitious veils. For further discussion about the buddha-potential, see Gyalwa Longchenpa's grub mtha' mdzod and S. K. Hookham, Tht Buddha Within.
109 On account of great compassion for all beings without exception, the prac- titioner escapes the extreme of nirvana. Owing to the wisdom of realizing the emptiness of all phenomena, the practitioner escapes the extreme of samsara. Authentic bodhichitta, the wisdom of emptiness endowed with the essence of compassion, is possessed only from the first bodhisattva ground onward. 110 "According to the master Buddhagupta, these four attitudes are called bound- less because their referent is the boundless aggregate of beings, because they bring forth the boundless accumulation of merit and wisdom, the boundless qualities of buddhahood, and the boundless wisdom of nonduality." [YG II, II] III "The Tibetan word btang sn)'oms has three possible meanings: a neutral feeling (tshor ba btang sn)'oms), the conditioning factor of evenness ('du b),td btang sn)'oms); and boundless impartiality (tshad mtd btang sn)'oms). In this context, the third sense is intended." [YG II, 20] 112 tshangs pa'i gnas bzhi, the four divine abidings or attitudes in which the great Brahma is said eternally to dwell. Ostensibly, they are the same as the four boundless attitudes just described, with the crucial difference that they are oriented toward the subject rather than the object. This gives rise to unwar- ranted distinctions made between beings according to one's own point of view rather than theirs. Thus the tendency is to love what is close and pleasing to oneself, to be compassionate but in a self-interested way, and so on. 113 They are beyond the four ontological extremes: it cannot be said that they exist, that they do not exist, that they both exist and do not exist, and that they neither exist nor do not exist. 114 "There are four conditions for the appearance of the four boundless attitudes: (I) the causal condition, namely, the tathagatagarbha (rlJ'u'i rk)'tn); (2) the NOTES 459
dominant condition, namely, the spiritual friend who teaches the four bound- less attitudes (bdag po'i rk)'en); (3) the objective condition, which is the object of the meditator's focus (dmigs pa'i rk),tn); and (4) the immediately preceding condition, namely, the knowledge of the benefits of this meditation and the defects of the opposite (de ma thag pa'i r/ryen)." [YG 1, 27] 115 The two paths are identical in that they bring about the realization of "empti- ness endowed with the heart of compassion." The same can be said about the final result: the fruit of the Sutrayana and Tantrayana paths is likewise one and the same. 116 Up to and including the seventh ground, the defiled emotional mind (nyon )'iJ) continues to manifest in the form of thoughts during the post-meditation experience of the Bodhisattva. It is, however, powerless to produce karma and is likened to a snake that has been cut in half, which continues to wriggle but is unable to attack. On the eighth ground, this is completely arrested. On the ninth ground, the five ordinary sense consciousnesses are completely arrested, but the mental consciousness is only panially so. As a result of this, the four perfect knowledges are realized. At the same time, the whole expanse of phenomenal appearance arises as a buddhafield. On the tenth ground, the mental consciousness is completely transformed into a kind of wisdom that is able to engage in all sense fields simultaneously. It is only at the end of the tenth ground, however, when the level of buddhahood is perfectly attained, that the last traces of duality are transcended. 117 "Bodhichitta associated with a keen aspiration toward enlightenment is lik- ened to the earth, for it is the foundation of all qualities. The bodhichitta associated with the wish to practice the six paramitas for others' sake is immutable like gold. Concomitant with a sublime disposition of the mind, it is like the waxing moon, because wholesome qualities develop from it. Associ- ated with active engagement in the paramitas, it is like fire, for it spreads like a forest blaze. Associated with the paramita of generosity, it is like a treasure, for it inexhaustibly satisfies all wishes. Associated with the paramita of disci- pline, it is like a mine ofJewels, a source of precious qualities. Associated with the paramita of patience, it is like the ocean, unaffected by assaults of fire and sword. Associated with the paramita of diligence, it is indestructible like a diamond. Associated with the paramita of concentration, it is like a mountain, unshaken by the gale of thoughts. Associated with the paramita of wisdom, it is like medicine, healing the ills of the emotions. The bodhichitta associated with the paramita of skillful means is like a spiritual teacher, a constant source of benefit for beings. Associated with the paramita of aspiration, it is like a magical gem that grants all wishes. Associated with the paramita of strength, it is like the sun that brings the harvest's increase. Associated with the paramita of primordial wisdom, it is like a song, teaching the doctrine in harmony with the disposition of each and every being. The bodhichitta connected with preternatural knowledge is like a king, with all activities beneath its sway.
Connected with the twofold accumulation, it is like a trtasurt houst containing numerous deposits of merit and wisdom. The bodhichitta associated with the thiny-seven factors leading to enlightenment is like a highway, trodden by the Buddhas of the past, present, and future. Associated with shamatha and vipashyana, it is the perfect convryanct, for it keeps to the center of the path and does not veer off into the two extremes. The bodhichitta associated with dharani and intelligence is like a spring, endlessly spilling fonh the words and meaning of the Doctrine and revealing them to others. Associated with the feast of Dharma, it is like music, an inspiration to beings. Associated with the one and only path, it is like a rivtr flowing naturally into the ocean of omni- science. Associated with the Dharmakaya, it is like a cloua, showing fonh the Buddha's twelve deeds, beginning with his dwelling in Tushita, the Joyous Realm. The above mentioned qualities of keen aspiration and so fonh are the suppons-emphasized at different moments of the path-of bodhi- chitta, the attitude of aiming at enlightenment for the sake of others."
[YG II, 59] The Buddha's twelve deeds are recorded in the Uttaratantra-shastra: The Knower of Worlds, the Great Compassionate One, sees the universe, and without stirring from the state of Dharmakaya, he appears in manifold Nirmanakaya forms. Every supreme Nirmanakaya displays twelve deeds per- ceptible to unenlightened beings, and this until the end of samsara. (I) He descends from Tushita; (2) enters the womb of his mother; (3) takes binh; (4) learns all sciences and arts; (5) takes delight in the company of his queens; (6) renounces worldly life; (7) practices austerities; (8) goes to Vajrasana; (9) vanquishes the hosts of maras; (10) achieves perfect enlightenment; (II) turns the wheel of Dharma; and (12) passes into nirvana. 118 "This is the general approach. More specifically, however, in beings whose general attitude militates against the bodhichitta training (for instance, per- sons who are incapable oftaking the vow to refrain from killing), bodhichitta cannot arise. Even if they go through the motions of receiving the vow, they accumulate nothing but downfalls." [YG II, 77] 119 This accounts for the importance attached to the making of offerings at the moment of taking the vow. When Atisha was at a cenain place in Tibet, he twice refused to give the bodhisattva vow because the offerings made were meager and insufficient. He said that because the offerings (in the sense of the preparation of the place and so on as described in the text) were poor, it would be difficult for bodhichitta to develop. At the third request, this time accompanied by more extensive preparations, he announced that the offerings were just sufficient and consented to give the vow. 120 ba 'bJ·ung, literally "deriving from the cow." This term refers to a substance prepared, in accordance with ancient Indian tradition, from various ingredi- ents derived from cows. It is not easy to come by since the ingredients must be taken only on the full moon and at the moment immediately after the cow has calved for the first time. Moreover, the animal in question must be red, without the slightest trace of white. NOTES 461
121 rg)'al srid sna bawn. "The seven attributes of royalty, that is, the seven posses- sions of a Chakravartin, are: the precious golden wheel, the precious wish- fulfilling jewel, the precious queen, the precious minister, the precious ele- phant, the precious horse, and the precious general. These symbolize the seven sublime riches. Ashvaghosha says: 'The precious wheel, rolling day and night along the path of virtue, symbolizes faith. The precious queen, arrayed in beautiful ornaments and garlands, symbolizes discipline. The precious minister symbolizes generosity that brings forth merit and wisdom on a vast scale. The precious general symbolizes learning that vanquishes the enemies of wrong thoughts. The supreme horse symbolizes the sense of shame which buries the defiled emotions in egolessness. The mighty elephant symbolizes consideration of others, discarding all incorrect conduct. The precious jewel symbolizes aspirations for oneself and others. These constitute sublime riches endowed with limitless excellence. All other kinds of wealth bring forth suf- fering.' " [YGIl, 149] bkras shis rtags brgyaa. The eight auspicious symbols are the eight symbols refer- ring to eight aspects of the Buddha's Body, Speech, and Mind. They are: the everlasting knot, the lotus, the canopy, the conch, the wheel, the banner, the vase, and the golden fishes. razas brgyaa. The eight substances that were offered to the Buddha after his enlightenment. They are: white mustard, curd, a mirror, a white conch shell turning in a clockwise direction, bezoar, orange-colored powder, durwa grass, and kusha grass. "Generosity and the other paramitas should be practiced in a way that is free from the following faults, namely, seven types of attachment: (I) attachment to objects, beginning with material possession and extending to wrong views; (2) procrastination; (~) self-satisfaction; (4) expectation of recompense; (5) expectation of karmic result; (6) dormant opposing factors (from avarice to distorted understanding); and (7) distraction through interest in the Hina- yana and belief in the true existence of object, subject, and action." [YG II, 218] "The four special qualities which define the six paramitas are: (I) the fact that the paramitas eliminate all relevant adverse factors; (2) they are combined with the wisdom that sees through the false notions of action, agent, and object; (~) they fulfill the desires and aspirations of others; and (4) they lead beings to one of the three types of enlightenment according to their capacity (i.e., that of Shravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, or Bodhisattvas)." [YG II, 185] "These three pure elements mean that the intention is pure because the prac- tice is done in order to cultivate bodhichitta. The substance of offering is pure since it is untainted by wrongdoing, such as killing, trafficking, or some other sort of evil livelihood. The object of offering is also pure, for it is the Three Jewels themselves." [DKR] 122 12~ 124 125 126
127 stobs bzhi: sun 'bJ'in pa'i stobs, kun tu sp)'oa pa'i stobs, sor chua pa'i stobs, rUn kyi stobs. (See Patrul Rinpoche, The Woras ofMy Perfect Teacher, pp. 265, 266)
128 "Rejoicing is the antidote to jealousy. Jealousy is a feeling of displeasure at the prospect of another person's good qualities and actions, and a feeling of satisfaction when others are seen to act wrongly or break their discipline. Such thoughts, besides being utterly futile, are highly reprehensible. Jealous people are an embarrassment to holy beings and an object of contempt for the powers of good. However good a practitioner a jealous person might seem, he or she will not escape the lower realms." [YG II, 110] 129 "The symbolism of the Dharma wheel is explained in different ways. The Vaibhashikas consider that it represents the path of seeing. Others consider that it symbolizes the Eightfold Noble Path. According to the latter perspec- tive, Right Speech, Right Conduct, and Right Livelihood, which belong to the training in discipline, are the center of the wheel. Right View and Right Thought, which belong to the training of wisdom, are the sharp spokes of the wheel. The remaining three elements (Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration), belonging to the training of concentration, are the rim of the wheel. In the Mahayana, the wheel symbolizes the Dharma of transmission and realization, because, from the time of the perfect Buddha until the disciples of the present time, it has been passed down 'revolving constantly from mind to mind.' " [YG II, 114] 130 "An essential point concerning the dedication is that it should be expressed in the words of someone who has attained the sublime grounds (i.e., the path of seeing or above) so that the formula is thus composed of words of truth. It should be noted also that there is a difference between dedication prayers and prayers of aspiration. The former is focused on merit while the latter expresses a wish of some kind. Dedication necessarily includes aspiration, but the reverse is not always the case." [YG II, 119] 131 See appendix 4, p. 380. 132 The Mahayana level of Nonretumer should not be confused with the Nonre- turner level of the Shravakayana. Beings belonging to the latter category do not return to the desire realm. In a Mahayana context, it is understood that a Bodhisattva abiding on the grounds willingly returns to lead beings on the path. Bodhisattvas are referred to as N onreturners because their minds never revett to the samsaric state with all its negativities and limitations. 133 See The Wa)' of the Boahisattva, III, 23-24: Just as all the Buddhas of the past Have brought forth the awakened mind, And in the precepts of the Bodhisattvas Step by step abode and trained,
Likewise, for the benefit of beings,
I will bring to binh the awakened mind, And in those precepts, step-by-step, I will abide and train myself. 134 "According to Atisha, they are as follows: not to have a natural proclivity toward the Mahayana; to have little compassion; not to fear the miseries of samsara; to keep bad company; to dismiss buddhahood as something remote; to be overwhelmed by evil forces; to be the follower of a H inayana prac- titioner; to practice with the Hinayana attitude; to tum away from any being whatsoever; to have evil intentions toward and speak maliciously to a Bodhi- sattva; to fail to relinquish what militates against bodhichitta; to be lacking in knowledge, careful attention, and respect; and to be prey to many emo- tions." [YG II, 145J 135 "This does not mean that on the supreme level, coemergent or innate defile- ments no longer arise. However, since at that point they are not harmful in the sense of impelling actions leading to samsara (as they are in the case of ordinary beings), the antidotes to them do not need to be so forcefully ap- plied." [YG II, 148J See also YG II, 149: "As a support for the observance of the precepts, it is important to rely on the 'seven sublime riches.' " See note 121. 136 The followers of Nagarjuna's tradition of the Profound View keep to the teachings of the Akashagarbha-sutra, the Mahaguh)'aupayakausha9'a-sutra, and the Shikshasamu((ha)Ia o f Shantideva. Followers o f Asanga's tradition o f V ast Activi- ties keep to his Bodhisattvabhumi-shastra and the Samvaravimshaka of Chandra- . gomln. 137 rg)'al po'i Itung ba Inga. "The root downfalls of a king are so called because people in positions of power are liable to commit them. But of course they are downfalls for anyone who has taken the bodhisattva vow. They cause beings to fall from the higher, happy state of gods and humans to the lower realms, destroying all the cultivated roots of merit that empower or 'crown' the royal lineage. The downfalls are: I. With an evil intention, to take the property of the Three Jewels or to induce others to do the same. This covers the theft of images, books, articles pertaining to a stupa, the goods belonging to the Sangha or the Spiritual Master, and so on. 2. To repudiate any of the three vehicles or to lead someone into the belief that they do not constitute the path to liberation. 3. To rob, beat, imprison, or kill wearers of the monastic robe (regardless of whether they have taken vows or not and, if they have, regardless of the quality of their discipline) or to force them to return to the lay status, or to induce another to do the same. 4. To commit any of the five sins of immediate effect.
5. To hold wrong views (such as that there is no such thing as karma)." [YG II, 152] See also OS, 239.
138 blon po'; Itung ba lnga. "The first downfall is to destroy aggressively a homestead, a village of four castes, a small town or a large town, or an entire region such as Champaka (the area of the Ganges delta). The other four downfalls correspond to the first four downfalls of a king." [YG II, 153] 139 phal pa'; ltung ba brgyaJ. "I. To teach the doctrine ofemptiness to persons who are unprepared for it or who are liable to be alarmed, since they will as a result relinquish bodhichitta and aspire to the teachings of the Hinayana. 2. Consciously to direct people of Mahayana disposition away from the Mahayana path, and lead them to the practice of the H inayana (insinuating that they are incapable of the attainment of full enlightenment and that they should confine their aspirations merely to freedom from samsara). 3. By an injudicious praise of the Mahayana, to lead people of H inayana disposition to give up their vows of Pratimoksha, and thereby to leave them without any vows. 4. To hold, or teach another to hold, that the following of the H inayana path does not eradicate the defilements, and to say that the Shravakas do not have an authentic path to liberation. 5. For reasons of jealousy, to criticize other Bodhisattvas openly and to praise oneself. 6. Falsely to claim realization of the profound view, wishing thereby to receive gifts and respect. 7. To consort with powerful people, encourage them to persecute practitioners, and secretly appropriate the religious offerings for oneself. 8. To disrupt the practice of meditators by appropriating their goods and distributing them to those who merely study or perform rituals. To disturb those engaged in shamatha meditation through the imposition of bad rules and regulations." [YG II, 154] See also OS, 241• 140 "Although eighteen downfalls are enumerated, they in fact amount to four- teen, since four of the downfalls of a king and four of the downfalls of a minister coincide. These acts, moreover, are referred to as belonging to kings, ministers, or ordinary people, because these are the classes of people most liable to perpetrate them. But of course it is possible for any individual to commit them." [YG II, 155] 141 In addition, Yonttn Gyamtso says that there are eighty faults enumerated in the Sh;kshasamuuha),a. In brief, these are: (I) twenty-four faults in connection with happiness and suffering (i.e., the faults of not dispelling the suffering or nurturing the happiness of others when one is in a position to do so); and
(2) sixteen faults connected with the giving-up of the practice (i.e., the failure to contrive remedies to the sufferings of others). These two groups together make forty faults. Further categorized according to whether they are tempo- rary or permanent faults, they come to eighty faults. [YG II, 156] 142 See YG II, 158; OS, 279; Oudjom Rinpoche, Perfect Conduct, p. 96, for an exposition of the method of repairing faults according to the tradition of Nagarjuna. 143 "If aspirational bodhichitta is lost, the bodhichitta vow is itself instantly annihilated, without any consideration of the time periods concerned, as when a fresco collapses simultaneously with the wall on which it is painted. The same applies when the bodhichitta precepts are given back. This is in contrast with the four permutations of returning or damaging the vow, as spoken of in the Pratimoksha, according to which vows may indeed be given back if one is unable to keep them. These four permutations are: (I) not giving back the vows and not damaging them; (2) not giving them back but damaging them; (3) not damaging them but giving them back; and (4) damag- ing them and giving them back. By contrast, the vow of bodhichitta may under no circumstances be returned, on pain of incurring an extremely griev- ous fault. This is because to return the vow amounts to breaking the promise to help all sentient beings until they attain enlightenment.... If, on the other hand, a root downfall is committed, the confession of it, done or not done in the requisite period of time, is the factor that determines whether the continuity of the training has been broken." [YG II, 158] 144 "People of superior capacity realize that downfalls are primordially without true existence. For such people, these arise in the sphere of discursiveness and, like a design traced on the surface of the water, they are unable to leave behind either habitual tendency or residual effect. But people who are still at the stage where meditation is alternated with post-meditation experience must act according to the prescriptions of the Mahamoksha-sutra." [YG II, 162] 145 Another, more formal way of confession is described in the tradition of Vast Activities of Asanga. See OS, 283; Oudjom Rinpoche, Perfect Conduct, p. 98. 146 For an extensive treatment of this subject, see The Wa)1 of the Bodhisattva, VIII, 90-98; 141-154; and the commentary of Khenchen Kunzang Pelden translated in the same volume, pp. I 82ff. 147 The demon in Indian mythology who by periodically swallowing the sun and the moon is responsible for eclipses. 148 According to Asanga's Bodhisattvabhumi-shastra, there are four root downfalls to be avoided: (I) out of desire for reputation and honor, to praise oneself and belittle others; (2) to refrain from giving, whether materially or spiritually, through a sense of miserliness; (3) to harm others out of anger; and (4) ignorantly to criticize the Mahayana as not being the Buddha's word and to concoct one's own teaching, proclaiming it to be the authentic doctrine. [OS,
252J In addition, there are forty-six minor infractions of the precepts of bodhichitta in action. These are explained in the Samvaravimshaka of Chandra- gomin. See OS, 254; Dudjom Rinpoche, Ptrjtct Conau(t, p. 84.
149 "The transcendent perfection of generosity and the rest are defined by four special qualities (kh)'aa (hos bzhi): (I) they eliminate their contraries; (2) they are associated with the wisdom transcending the three spheres, or notions of subject, object, and action; (3) they fulfill the wishes of others; and (4) they lead beings, subject to their karmic lot, to maturation in any of the three types of enlightenment. They are called paramita (literally, param = other shore, ita = gone) because they transcend the corresponding worldly virtues and those of the Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas and reach beyond samsara." [YG II, 185J 150 This distinction is made according to whether the practice is undertaken in relation to conceptual reference. While the accumulation of merit implies the presence of dualistic concepts of subject and object, the accumulation of wisdom implies their absence. 151 Paramitas seven to ten are not so much separate perfections as qualities ac- companying the previous six paramitas. 152 "If a person is able to relinquish attachment to possessions, this is considered to be supreme generosity. For generosity consists in a mind that has no craving for possessions." [YG II, 200J 153 "As for great generosity, we should reflect as follows and make the resolution: 'At the moment I am deeply attached to my family and dear ones; I want to be with them forever, and for their sake I get angry and possessive and this is an evil. We will, in any case, be separated sooner or later, and so I must rid myself of this kind of clinging. I will train myself so that I will one day be able to relinquish them, like the great Bodhisattvas.' " [YG II, 203J 154 "The physical body is a mass of filthy substances, and life is rushing by like a powerful gale. Both these things follow karma and are dependent on it. Even though at all times, people do everything to protect their bodies and their lives, both are liable to be destroyed by fire, water, precipices, political powers, wild animals, robbers, and so on. And even if they do not meet with such a fate, when death comes, their bodies will be cremated or thrown into the water, scattered for the vultures, or buried in the earth. In the end, nothing will be left of them, not even the slightest particle of dust. Yet while in life, people cherish their bodies, considering them their dearest possession. They do everything to protect them, and for their sake they inflict harm on others, whether in thought or deed. For us who are disciples of the compassionate Buddha, all this is a serious mistake. Therefore, we should repeatedly repudi- ate attachment to our bodies and offer them to other beings. Far from using our bodies as an instrument for harming others, we should use them directly for their help, and indirectly so in the practice of Dharma-for this itself
must be animated by an altruistic attitude. To practice religion for one's own sake is quite incorrect. And even though, at the moment, we are not actually able to make a gift of our bodies and lives, it is imponant to be aware of the need to train ourselves with a view to emulating the great Bodhisattvas who could indeed give up their bodies, freely and at will. For we will never acquire such a capacity unless we train ourselves over and over again. This truth is set fonh in the Shikshasamuccha),a, and It is imponant to begin the training now." [YG II, 204] 155 There is a story that a pigeon used to listen to Vasubandhu reciting the sutras. This had the effect of purifying the karma of its previous existences. When it died it was reborn a human being and became the master Sthiramati. [YG II, 214] 156 "How is it that it is sometimes taught nevenheless that, aside from wrong views, the other two negative acts of mind are occasionally permitted? If the motive is analyzed in detail, one can see that it is possible to covet the wealth of a person of low merit in order to make offerings on that person's behalf. Or again one might wish to reduce the power and influence of someone who is destroying the teachings and injuring others. Mental actions such as these do not have the complete characteristics of a negativity. They are therefore admissible. However, it is never taught that truly negative actions of the mind are permissible." [YG II, 227J 157 "Ordination into the monastic life of homelessness is praised as the best condition for progress toward enlightenment, and it remains so until the supreme ground of realization is attained. Thus, monastic ordination is the best situation for beginners, whose principal training is in the discipline of avoiding negativities. Wearing the robes will remind them to observe the discipline, and they will be easily recognized by both gods and humans as a suitable object of offering. In this way, they will receive sustenance without needing to involve themselves in wearisome activities and will not be defiled by the need to involve themselves in unethical situations. Thus, free from distractions and a troubled conscience, they will have the principal living condition for the development of concentration. The holder of the bodhi- sattva vow who at the same time has the pratimoksha vows is said to observe the 'Pratimoksha of the Bodhisattvas.' " [YG II, 233J 158 "Once upon a time, Indrabodhi, the king of Oddiyana, caught sight of some red objects flying in the sky. They were too far away for him to see what they were. 'What are those strange birds?' he asked. His couniers informed him that they were Shravakas, the followers of the Buddha. Thereupon the king conceived the desire to see the Buddha and prayed to him, and sure enough, the Buddha miraculously appeared in the company of five hundred Arhats. Indrabodhi paid homage to him and asked him to teach him the path to enlightenment. The Buddha said that the king should go fonh into homelessness and embrace the life of a monk, practising the three trainings.
But to this Indrabodhi replied, '0 Gautama, I do not want liberation if it means giving up all that is a delight to my senses! Indeed, I would prefer to be a fox in the pleasant garden of the world!' In that very instant, the retinue of Shravakas vanished and a voice was heard from the sky proclaiming that they had been but the miraculous display of the Bodhisattvas. The Buddha then opened the wisdom mandala of the Guhyasamaja-tantra, and in that very instant, the king attained buddhahood, the union of Oharmakaya and Rupa- kaya." [OS 294J
159 "The monastic discipline should possess eight qualities. It should be (I) un- impaired, that is, not transgressed even once. It should therefore be (2) fault- less because free it is of any defect. It should be (3) unadulterated through not being mixed with any unwholesome factors. It should be (4) unsullied by motivations aiming at prosperity or the concerns of this life. It should be (5) uncontaminated by inconstancy. It should be (6) powerful, through possessing the five foregoing qualities, and (7) praised by the learned and the Aryas. Finally, it should (8) favor the practice of concentration. Concentra- tion renders the mind serviceable, so that wisdom and the other qualities of the path may develop. Therefore, discipline is the ground in which all quali- ties can grow." [YG II, 243J 160 The vows of shramanera or getsul are sometimes referred to in English as novice vows. This is incorrect. The term "novice" in this context has been mistakenly borrowed from Christian monasticism where it denotes a monk in training prior to profession or the taking of vows. The novitiate is neces- sarily a temporary condition (usually lasting between one and two years). In Buddhism, by contrast, the shramanera or getsul ordination embodies a com- plete monastic grade in itself, and many monks keep this ordination through- out their lives. Moreover, given that the lineage of bhikshuni or gtlongma vows has been interrupted (and may never have existed) in Tibet, the vast majority of Tibetan Buddhist nuns are permanent gttsulmas. 161 The basic idea here is that a lie is only completely accumulated (and the vow broken) when a falsehood is spoken to a human being with the above men- tioned qualifications. Hermaphrodites and so on are presumably mentioned here in the sense of their not being in possession of the entire range of human attributes. The preoccupation is one of scholastic precision in stipulating the criteria for the loss of the vow. It does not mean that lying to eunuchs is admissible. 162 In addition to touching a man, these are: traveling alone, swimming, sitting close to a man, arranging marriages, and concealing the faults of another woman novice in training for full ordination. [OS, 108J 163 Ibid. In addition to the fault mentioned, these are: shaving the pubic hair, digging the earth, hoarding uneaten food, eating food that has not been offered, and cutting green grass. [OS, 108J
164 See also OS, 109. 165 "When a root defeat is committed (phas pham pa), the monk's ordination is completely destroyed." [YG II, 249J 166 "These faults are termed residual (lhag ma) because after their commission, only a residue of the ordination remains. And before such faults are repaired, the monk in question is demoted and required to take last place in the Sangha, eating only the food that is left over from the communal meal." [YG II, 251] 167 "Downfalls requiring rejection (spang ba'i ltung bJ'ed) are so called because they can only be repaired by the repudiation of the object through which the downfall has occurred. And they are called downfalls because, if they are not repaired, they create the cause for falling into the lower realms. There are ten such downfalls related separately to monastic robes, seats, and begging bowls (thus thirty all together)." [YG II, 252J See also OS, 119 and Dudjom Rin- poche, Perfect Conduct, pp. 34-36. 168 These are called downfalls (ltung bJ'ed 'ba 'zhig), because, as with the previous thirty, their commission leads to the lower realms, but their reparation does not involve the repudiation of the objects. For more information, see Dudjom Rinpoche, Perfect Conduct, pp. 37-44. 169 "Thesefourfaults(SOT bshagssdebzhi)-mainlyrelatedtothetakingoffood- are purified by a specific and contrite confession made while standing outside the monastery precincts." [YG II, 256J See also Dudjom Rinpoche, Perfect Conduct, pp. 44-45. 170 These are minor faults (nyes byas) of general deportment. In the Theravada tradition, they are less numerous. See OS, 153 and Dudjom Rinpoche, Perfect Conduct, pp. 45-50. 171 sbom po, lit. gross. This refers to the radical defeats and residual faults the commission of which does not involve all the elements necessary for the full accomplishment of the act. See chapter 3, p. I 38ff. 172 The four doors that lead to transgression are: ignorance of the precepts, lack of respect for them, negligence, and an excess of defiled emotions. It is obvi- ously impossible to respect and observe what one is ignorant of. 173 See OS, 163 and Dudjom Rinpoche, Perfect Conduct, pp. 51-53. 174 gso sb)'ong, Skt. uposatha. "The ritual of restoration and purification refreshes the remedial force of virtue and cleanses all faults. This ritual is of two kinds. The first, which is called 'calm abiding' (zhi gnas kyi gso sbyong), purifies the obscurations accumulated in the past and perfects the superior trainings in concentration and wisdom. The second is called 'concordant' (mthun pa'i gso sh)'ong), whereby wrongdoing is avoided in the present life and the training in discipline is kept pure. The former refers to the practice of shamatha and vipashyana meditation, while the latter consists of the ritual of formal confes-
sion. This again is of two kinds: first, the ritual performed regularly on the fourteenth or fifteenth of the lunar month, and second, the private confession performed, when and as necessary, as a means of receiving blessing and in order to avert calamities and foster harmony in the Sangha." [YG II, 270]
175 dbyar gnas. "The traditional summer retreat begins either on the fifteenth day of the sixth lunar month and finishes three months later, on the fifteenth day of the ninth month, or else it lasts from the fifteenth day of the seventh month till the fifteenth of the tenth month." [YG II, 272] See also OS, 168. 176 dgag dbJ,t. The ritual that concludes the summer retreat must be performed even when the retreat is interrupted by external circumstances. It marks the lifting of all the restrictions imposed during the summer retreat. 177 The seventeen regulations referred to here cover: (I) ordination; (2) ritual of restoration and purification; (~) summer retreat and (4) its concluding ritual; (5) the prohibition of the use of fur and leather; (6) the rules for nourishment and the practice of medicine; (7) the proper color and style of the robes; (8) the so-called kathina practice, namely, the making and distribution of the robes, and so on; (9) the practice of kaushambi, or the smooth pacification of divisions; (10) other prescribed formalities (of which there are more than a hundred); (II) the imposition of discipline for the "orange-clad," in other words, the forceful settling of problems and the imposition of punishments for indiscipline; (12) the dealing with cases of indiscipline on the individual level (the problems of how to deal with breaches of conduct, penances given for faults confessed, and excommunication for faults upheld); (I~) the demo- tion in monastic rank for serious infractions and failure to attend the ritual of restoration and purification; (14) regulations regarding suspension from the restoration and purification ritual; (15) rules connected with dwelling places; and finally (16) the settling of quarrels and (17) the healing of divi- sions. See Buddhist Ethics, p. 129ff. 178 This is an allusion to the fact that the inhabitants of the Northern Conti- nent have all that they could possibly wish. They are therefore free of craving (chags pa). "In general, there are four types of discipline: naturally infused discipline, the discipline of one who has realized ultimate reality, the discipline of ob- serving a vow, and the discipline of the one who is in samadhi in which all faults are discarded." [YG II, 286] 179 I. thams cad)'od par smra ba, the Sarvastivadins: those who "hold that every- thing exists." This does not mean that they accepted the reality of everything, but only ofseventy-five dharmas which they recognized as ultimate and having permanent existence. 2. phal chtn sdt pa, the Mahasanghikas: the Great Assembly (from which the Mahayana is said to have developed). ~. gnas brttn pa, the Sthaviras, the Elders (the Theravada, the only shravaka school still existent as such, mainly found in southern Asia). NOTES 471
4. mang bos bkur ba, the Sammitiya: the followers of Sammita. An impor- tant subdivision of this school was known as the Vatsiputriyas, gnas ma bu ba, whose distinctive tenet was the assertion of a quasi-permanent self, neither different from nor identical with the skandhas. This school seems to have been very successful, although no original works have survived the test of time. 180 With regard to the spread of the Sarvastivada in Tibet, Kyabje Oudjom Rinpoche says: "The Vinaya tradition practiced in Tibetan Buddhism is that of the Sarvastivada school introduced to Tibet by Shantarakshita. This lin- eage began with the Buddha and was passed down through Shariputra, Ra- hula (or Saraha), Nagarjuna, Bhavaviveka, and others. Following the persecution of Langdarma, this Vinaya lineage revived and spread again from the lowlands of Kham and is for this reason called the Eastern or Lowland Lineage of the Vinaya (smad 'dul). This lineage continues to this day and is the system into which all Nyingmapas and most Gelugpas are ordained. "At a later date, the master Oharmapala, a pandit from eastern India, went to Ngari in western Tibet (so-called Upper Tibet) and introduced another ordination lineage, referred to as the Western or Upland Lineage of the Vinaya (stod 'dul). This is also known as the 'lineage ofthe three Pala brothers' (referring to Oharmapala's three main disciples: Saddhupala, Gunapala, and Prajiiapala). "At a still later date, the Kashmiri pandit Shakya Shri came to Tibet and ordained Sakya Pandita and others, thus inaugurating the tradition known as the Middle Lineage of Vinaya (bar 'dul), into which most Sakyapas and Ka- gyupas are ordained. Note that since the original 'Upland Lineage' is nor- mally considered extinct, the 'Middle Lineage' is now often referred to as the 'Upland Lineage of Vinaya.' " [OS, 77] 181 See the text chos kyi rnam grangs in the Tengyur, the Tibetan collection of shastras. Krikin was a contemporary of the Buddha Kashyapa. According to the story, he had a dream in which he saw a large piece of cloth divided into eighteen pieces, each of which, when measured, proved to be the same size as the original piece. It was interpreted as a sign of the propagation of the eighteen shravaka schools. 182 See also OS, 381. 183 "Some say that the following two root verses are not by Jigme Lingpa." [OKR] 184 "The spontaneous display of wisdom." [OKR] 185 "The aspirational dtity, on the path of accumulation, is the deity contrived by thought at the generation stage only. It is, however, linked with the wisdom of the perfection stage. By contrast, on the path of joining, the dtity of tht wind-mind is not contrived by thought. It is a deity manifesting in the manner of an illusion from the strength of familiarity with the conceptual phase of
the perfection stage. On the path ofseeing, the dtity ofluminosif)' is the sponta- neous radiance of ultimate wisdom actualized during the nonconceptual phase of the perfection stage. On the path of meditation, one speaks of the dtif)' of tht unittd ltvtl of tht path of ltarning, while at the level of buddhahood, the union of the Oharmakaya and Rupakaya is called the dtity of tht unittd ltvtl of no mort ltarning." [YG II, 297]
186 "This wisdom may be either 'example wisdom' or 'ultimate wisdom.' These are identical in their nature and form; they are different in that 'example wisdom' is accompanied by conceptual movement." [OKRJ 187 "There are four additional impediments to the taking of the pratimoksha vows of shramanera and full ordination. These are: (I) sk),t ba'i bar chad, a congenital obstacle, that is, to be born without the capacity for sexual activity, and therefore to be without the basis of the vow; (2) gnas pa'i bar chad, an environmental obstacle, namely, the lack of permission on the part of one's family or secular authorities, thereby running the risk of being compelled to repudiate the vow; (3) kh)'ad par bar chad, individual and private obstacles, that is, to be so young as to be incapable of scaring crows away, or to be infirm or seriously handicapped to the point where keeping the vows becomes an intolerable burden, with the result that it is impossible to develop the quali- ties that observance of the vows is meant to produce; (4) mdzts pa'i bar chad, to be of deformed physical appearance (as to color and shape) and to follow an evil profession, such as butchery, thereby creating a scandal which weakens the faith of people in the Buddhadharma." It should be noted that these last two obstacles are not insurmountable. [OS, 87] 188 "In the course of the empowerment, the teacher uses symbols, implied mean- ings, and signs to introduce the wisdom that has dwelt within the mind from the very beginning, thus holding in check the inveterate habit of viewing phenomena as ordinary." [OKRJ 189 In other words, the practitioner is beyond observance of the vows and also beyond violation of them. 190 In this context, the term "transformation" is used only approximately. In fact, the wisdom in question is ever-present in the very depths of the ordinary mind, though veiled by adventitious factors. When these veils are removed, the innate wisdom shines fonh. This is consequently referred to as bral 'bras, "a result occuring through removal" (of obstructions). 191 "For example, the sexual yoga performed with the three specific attitudes may appear to be an ordinary sexual act. But since the yogic practitioner has transmuted his or her ordinary perception of male and female into the percep- tion of male and female deities, the first element, the ordinary object of desire, is absent. Since actual physical union is a practice performed in accordance with the skillful methods of the vow, the second element of ordinary physical union is absent. Finally, since the yogi or yogini transmutes the sensation of NOTES 473
climax into primordial wisdom and does not lose the essence, the third ele- ment, pleasure, is absent." [OS 389] 192 According to the ri chos of Karma Chagme, this somewhat shadowy figure was an Indian master who visited Tibet on three occasions (after the persecution of Langdarma), each time assuming a different identity. During his first visit, he was known as Shardakara and transmitted teachings, the nature of which Karma Chagme does not describe. On the second occasion, he appeared in the province of Ngari and was known as Atsara Marpo (the Red Teacher). It was then that he propagated the ideas on tantric practice described here. At the time of his third visit, he was known, it seems, as Gayadhara and translated the Thirteen Golden Teachings much valued in the Sakya tradition. 193 "I.e., they are superimposed." [DKR] 194 "Scholars who believe that the essence of the three vows is different take exception to the Nyingma standpoint. They say that the notions of transfor- mation and single essence are mutually exclusive. They argue that if one can talk about iron being transmuted into gold, the implication is that the two metals are different and do not have the same nature. Also, in view of the fact that the consciousness of the alaya is transformed into mirrorlike wisdom, the assertion that the two must have the same nature leads, they say, to the absurd consequence that mirrorlike wisdom is the basis of deluded propensities. Once again, the notion of the same nature clashes with the idea of transfor- mation. For if iron and gold have the same nature, what need is there for transformation? O f course one could argue that before transformation, the two metals lack the same nature but afterward, they acquire it. But in anticipa- tion of this objection, they say that if that were the case, the nature of gold is compromised and regarded as changeable. It is therefore incorrect, they say, to claim that gold has the same nature as iron. For if it had, it would follow that gold is a base metal like iron, while iron, even before transmuta- tion, must be precious and as valuable as gold. If this argument is examined, it is evident that it is merely by pointing out the flaws in the example that they are trying to discredit the meaning that the example is intended to express. I do not think this is a valid procedure. In ordinary terms, when iron is transmuted into gold, one would not normally say that (at the end of the process) the gold is something completely different from the iron, but rather that the iron has "changed into gold"-they are one and the same (i.e., a single mass that remains the subject of the transformation). Likewise, the pratimoksha and bodhichitta vows are transformed into the mantrayana vow. The earlier mental stream that had the nature of renunciation and altruism is now enhanced by the pure perception of the Mantrayana. It is in this sense that one can talk about the vows having the same nature. And not only is this not inadmissible, it is, on the contrary, highly acceptable! For it is the mind of the person that is gradually transformed, starting from entry into the path and going right up to the attainment of the result. It is in this sense that
it is possible to speak of the single nature." [YG II, 319J According to Karma Chagme, this is the view of Karmapa Chodrak Gyamtso.
195 According to Karma Chagme, this is the view of Khedrup-Je, although ac- cording to Patrul Rinpoche it is the view ofJeTsongkhapa himself. 196 This sounds like the incorrect opinion cited earlier (with the example of earth, water, and boat). However, here the emphasis is being placed on the enhancement of qualities, due to which a cenain transformation is seen to occur. 197 "When hearing about the teachings ofthe Mantrayana, some people entertain wrong views and reject it, and thereby create the cause for falling into the lower realms. In order to prevent this from happening, one should introduce them to the tantric teachings only at a later time." [DKRJ 198 "I.e., the means and wisdom that come from the stages of generation and perfection." [DKRJ 199 Uncompounded discipline is the discipline of one who has realized the equal- ity of all things. For such a person there is no observer and nothing to be observed. This is the authentic paramita of discipline. 200 "The Madhyamikas define a vow as a 'consciousness concomitant with a mental factor that is the intention' (spongs snns mtshungs lJan dang bcas pa) to refrain from wrong actions. They are not obliged to say that this is an autono- mous continuum, because of their general assertion that everything is depen- dent arising.... As long as benefit and harm result from positive and negative thoughts, one should, on the relative level, observe and not neglect the pre- cepts concerning what is to be done and what is to be avoided." [YG II, 331J 201 See note 88. 202 "Their own bodies, the body of a partner, or phenomena in general." [DKRJ 203 "Generally speaking, there is nothing definite about what should be cultivated and what should be prohibited. Words and deeds in themselves are neutral (their goodness or badness derives from motive)." [YG II, 333J (It should be noted that, as already shown, the operative attitude is that of bodhichitta. Motive here should not be confused with moral conscience of the kind re- ferred to in certain Western moral theories.) 204 "It is said in the Avatamsaka-sutra: 'When Bodhisattvas enter a house, they generate bodhichina wishing that all beings reach the city of Liberation. When they lie down to rest, they wish that all beings attain the Dharmakaya. When they rise, they wish that all beings attain the Rupakaya, and so fonh...." [YG II, 342J 205 "Free of all self-concern, we should g;vt beings our bodies (indeed all the five aggregates), the possessions that we need for our subsistence, and all our merits of the past, present, and future. Because we should protter what has NOTES 475
been given for the enjoyment of beings, we must strive in conformity with the Dharma to avoid things that are hazardous for our present and future lives and that endanger the very basis for altruistic activity. Thus the text says: 'Protecting one's body means to stop inflicting harm.' With regard to wealth, the best protection is the practice of virtue and a sense of contentment with what one has. Thus: 'Act correctly. By training in this way, you will protect your wealth without difficulty.' To dedicate the fruits of merit to the enlightenment of all instead of nourishing the improper hope of getting them for oneself is the best way to protect one's merit. 'Abandon the selfish wish for results, thus you will protect all your merits. Have no regret and do not talk about what you have done but rather have a horror of wealth and renown, abandoning all pride. Have faith in the Bodhisattvas and rid yourself of doubt in the Dharma.' It is not enough just to protect one's body, possessions and merits. One must purifJI them of all adverse factors. The body is purified by cleansing negative actions and cultivating the antidotes to defiled emotion. 'To purify the body means to cleanse away all negative actions and emotions.' To give up a wrong kind of livelihood and to cultivate virtue, in which skillful means and wisdom are conjoined, is what is meant by the purification of possessions, and merits. 'It should be understood that one's possessions are pure insofar as one's livelihood is pure. Merits are made pure by cultivating emptiness endowed with the essence of compassion.' However, even though the 'body, possessions, and merit' are purified, if one fails to increase them, it will be impossible to fulfill the wishes of beings. It is necessary therefore to develop them further. The increase of strength and endeavor corresponds to the development of the body: 'The development of the body means to banish laziness and train in strength.' Likewise, to give in charity in a way that unites skillful means and wisdom is to increase one's possessions. 'To give emptiness endowed with the essence of compassion means to increase one's wealth.' To increase merit means to train oneself to act in the manner of Bodhisattva Samantabhadra." [YG II, 344] 206 See Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche in Enlighttned Courage, p. 61: "When an angry pig rears up at us, if we hit it on the nose with a stick it will immediately tum round and run away, unable to bear the pain. If we clean the butter- lamp while it is still warm, the job is very easily done." 207 "Whichever path one wishes to practice, it is not sufficient simply to speak and act; it is important to pledge oneself with a powerful resolve. People who truly intend the benefit of others are in effect at war with four demons that hinder them from their goal. They must therefore acquire great fortitude, which is a powerful armor, impervious to the weapons of adversaries. In order to vanquish the Demon of the Defilements (a single one of the eighty-four thousand defilements is enough to prevent the attainment of liberation), they must stick to their pledge even if they have to persevere in it, beset by hun- dreds of difficulties, for measureless kalpas. As for the Demon 'Child of the
Gods,' the dissipater of concentration, when practitioners endure the hard- ships of the path, they take a pledge not to relinquish their diligence and to strive for virtue, even if they gain the power, reputation, society, and affluence of a Chakravartin king. This pledge is naturally accompanied by the armor that vanquishes the Demon of Death, the creator of obstacles to life, and also the Demon of the Aggregates, which is a hindrance to the gaining of nirvana without remainder. Finally, it is necessary to strive to integrate and bring into experience all the profound and vast teachings that are revealed in the pitaka of the Mahayana." [YG II, 369]
208 "Beginners should most of all avoid negative actions. Those on the level of the path of aspiration must gather virtue while those on the supreme bodhi- sattva grounds should devote themselves to the benefit of others." [YG II, 371] 209 It is said in the teachings on the intermediary state that the recently dead possess a certain clairvoyance and are able to perceive their former habitat and companions and are aware of the latter's thoughts and actions. 210 These are the Ganges, Indus, Oxus, and Tarim, four rivers rising in the Hima- layas and flowing into India. 211 A reference to the traditional classification of diseases according to the four medical tantras. 212 I.e., with the feet resting on the thighs or, in the case of half-vajra, with one foot resting on the thigh of the other leg, the other foot being tucked underneath. 213 In the present context ofshamatha meditation, "form" refers to visible objects such as a pebble or an image or visualization of the Buddha, and so on; "formless" refers to the breath, emptiness, the mind, and so on. 214 "At the outset, the beginners devote themselves to the practice of calm abid- ing or shamatha, concentrating one-pointedly on an image, for example, of the Buddha adorned with all the major and minor marks. As it is said in the Samaahiraja-sutra: Those who rest their minds upon The beauteous golden form of Buddha, Guardian of the world, are called Bodhisattvas who repose in evenness. "The mind is fixed for a lengthy period of time on this object, remaining concentrated on it to the exclusion of all else. Then, in order to accomplish profound insight or vipashyana, the meditator must first examine the object of concentration. The body of the Tathagata, adorned with the major and minor marks, which appears as the mind's object, has no existence whatever separate from the mind, not even to the slightest extent. The object of con- centration is but an appearance within the mind. And yet, at the same time, NOTES 477
there is nothing that could be pointed out as being 'the mind.' What cannot be pointed out or found does not exist, has never existed, and will never exist. Convinced that this is the inconceivable ultimate reality, the meditator rests in equipoise, free of thoughts." [YG II, 397] 215 "The Samadhiraja-sutra says: Concentration is the even ground, Peaceful, subtle, not to be observed. Since all perceptions are subdued, It is the holding of the very depths." [YG II, 398J To "hold the depths" is the literal translation of the Tibetan term for concen- tration (ting ngt 'dzin). 216 "The expression 'enjoyment concentration' refers to the fact that this kind of concentration results in the enjoyment of the higher realms." [YG II, 400] 217 shin sbyangs. This refers to virtuosity in training in the course of which all negative aspects of body and mind are eliminated. 218 219 ziL g)'is gnon pa'i sk),t mchtd brgyad. See appendix 9. ),id La h),td pa drug. "This refers to the six types of attention. (The mental factor of attention or mental engagement, ),id La h),td pa, means that the mind focuses steadily on its object.) The six types of attention are: (I) mtshan n),id rab tu rig p a ) , i d La h ) , t d p a , a t t e n t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o a c o r r e c t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c h a r a c - ter of the lower and higher realms. This means to focus alternately, through reflecting on the peaceful character of the higher realms and the harsh charac- ter of the lower realms. (2) mos pa )'id La bytd pa, attention with regard to the appreciation of the qualities of the higher realms. This means that the earlier study deepens into shamatha and vipashyana. (3) dbtn pa ),id La bytd pa, attention with regard to the discarding of the afflictions. It occurs when one is in the process of eliminating the three greatest degrees of the emotions of the desire realm. (4) dga' ba sdud pa yid La h),td pa, attention with regard to the accumulation of joy. It means that through the absence of affliction one enjoys a lesser kind of bliss. It is now that the medium degrees of the emotions of the desire realm are eliminated. (5) dh)'od pa yid La bytd pa, attention in which the mind focuses steadily on the investigation. It means to examine whether one pos- sesses subtle afflictions, thereby eliminating the lesser degrees of affliction in the desire realm. (6) sh)'or ba'i mtha' yid La h),td pa, attention that focuses on the fruit of the practice." [YG II, 408] I.e., the four samadhis of form, the four formless absorptions, together with the absorption of cessation. This makes nine. Instead of the absorption of cessation, the Abhidharma speaks of the "preparatory stage, nytr bsdogs, of the first samadhi," i.e., 'dod StmS rtst gcig, the "one-pointed mind of the desire realm." 220
221 "The practice of shamatha renders the mind immovable and impervious to the wind of thoughts. It is, however, unable to uproot defilements. It is vipashyana that eradicates the obscurations of ignorance and the belief in self. The Shravakas have more concentration than wisdom, whereas the Bodhi- sattvas have more wisdom than concentration. By contrast, the Tathagatas have both in equal measure." [YG II, 410]
222 "When mastery is gained in this meditation, in which all 'nonexistent' phe- nomena of relative truth appear as an illusion, practitioners acquire the power in post-meditation to produce magical apparitions according to their wish. For this reason, they are is said to possess 'miragelike concentration' (sgyu ma Ita bu'i ting ngt 'dzin). When their concentration is perfect and able to overcome all adversity, and when it is accompanied by all the elements leading to en- lightenment and displays the vast activities of buddhahood and is, in addition, immune to the fear of falling into a nirvana without remainder, it is called 'fearless or heroic concentration' (dpa' bar gro ba'i ting ngt 'dzin). ... Finally, they attain the 'diamondlike concentration' (rdo rjt Ita bu'i ting ngt 'dzin), so called because it is able to vanquish all obscurations, just as a diamond can break all other stones. The first concentration is experienced while the Bodhi- sattva is on the first to the seventh (i.e., the impure) grounds. The second concentration occurs while the Bodhisattva is on the pure grounds, i.e., the eighth to the tenth. Only at the end of the tenth ground is the third concen- tration attained." [YG II, 413] 223 This complex subject is discussed at length in the Prajnaparamita sutras. The distinction between "percept-thought" and "perceiver-thought" may perhaps be compared with the distinction made by Benrand Russell between "sense- data" and sensation. See Tht Problems of Philosoph)" p. 4. 224 "The four reliances are as follows: I. Knowledge of the Dharma comes from following a spiritual friend. However, the object of reliance is not the person of the teacher but the doctrine that he or she expounds. One should follow a teacher only after examining what he or she says. 2. Since the teaching is to be implemented, one should rely on its meaning, not on its mode of expression. 3. The meaning has two aspects: expedient and definitive. One must rely on the definitive meaning, and though one follows the expedient teaching for the time being, one should always do so with a view to the definitive meaning. 4. The definitive meaning is comprehended by the mind. However, since intellectual assessment, however excellent, does not extend beyond the relative truth, it should not be relied upon. Reliance should be placed in thought-free wisdom that sees the absolute truth directly." [YG II, 425] 225 See the Akshayamatinirdtsha-sutra. "What are the sutras of definitive meaning and what are the sutras of expedient meaning? The sutras taught with the NOTES 479
purpose of introducing people to the path are the sutras of the expedient meaning. The sutras taught in order that they can engage in the result are the sutras of definitive meaning." [YG II, 428J 226 The three natures or realities (rang bzhin gsum) are characteristic of the third turning of the Dharma wheel, as discussed in scriptures such as the Sandhinir- mochana-sutra. These texts are interpreted differently by the Chittamatra school and the Madhyamika school. "The following is a general exposition: I. Imputed reality (kun brtags). This consists in the mind's reification of what does not exist in and by itself. An illustration of this is the idea of a 'self,' which in fact has no existence. Imputed reality also refers to all mistaken tenets and to all things of which the mind assumes a real existence but which lack this in any objective, concrete sense. 2. Dependent reality (gzhan dbang). This has two aspects: (i) impure and (ii) pure: I. Our experience of the environment, the outer world and its inhabitants, is a product of deluded perceptions which are deeply ingrained. These perceptions are deluded precisely on account of the mind's tendency to reify, as previously mentioned. This kind of perception may be likened to a situation in which a man falls victim to a magical trick and sees an illusory horse which he then assumes to exist. All such appearances are classified as impure dependent reality. ii. Pure dependent reality refers to the perceptions of the outer world experienced by the Aryas in the times when they are not absorbed in meditation. They are 'pure' because uncontaminated by the tendency to reify, on account of which they are apprehended as existing in and by themselves. They could be also illustrated in terms of the previous example as being like the state of mind of the magician, who also sees the illusory horse that he has magically created but does not assent to its real, concrete existence. 3. Actual reality (yongs grub). Again, this is twofold: (i) unchanging and (ii) unmistaken. I. This is emptiness itself, the ultimate reality of all phenomena, their unchanging nature regardless of whether or not beings understand it. ii. This refers to the wisdom that directly and fully understands the ultimate reality of phenomena." [YG I, 281J 227 Mipham Rinpoche said that here the Buddha was speaking from the point of view of ultimate reality, not from the point of view of relative existence. [KJ, 316J 228 Mipham Rinpoche: "The Buddha did not mean that they would be born in Sukhavati immediately after their deaths." [KJ, 316J
229 Mipham Rinpoche: "The expression 'existing in the manner of a dream' means that things exist only on the conventional level." [KJ, 316J
230 In the root verses, Jigme Lingpa adopts the wording of the Sanahinirmo(hana- sutra. 231 These correspond to the incorrect theories of causality (as viewed from the Madhyamika perspective) typified by four schools of Indian philosophy. (I) Phenomena arise from themselves (Samkhya); (2) phenomena arise from ex- trinsic causes (the lower schools of Buddhist philosophy); (3) phenomena arise both from themselves and from other causes (Jaina); (4) phenomena have no cause (Charvaka). See also Khenchen Kunzang Pelden, The Ntctar of Manjushri's Speech, p. 37Iff. Cf. Nagarjuna's Mulamaahyamaka-karika, "Not from itself and not from something else, Not from both and not without a cause, Does any thing whatever, Anywhere, at any time, arise." (I, I) 232 "For some were saying that his teachings were too elementary." [KJ, 318J 233 I.e., two of the twelve links of dependent arisings. See chapter 4. 234 "Here 'father' and 'mother' are to be construed as the interdependent links of Craving and Grasping, respectively. The king is to be understood as the alaya, while the 'two of pure life' refer to the Brahmins, who represent the view of 'I' (the transitory composite), and to the virtuous ascetics, who repre- sent the wrong view of ethical and doctrinal superiority. The 'country and the royal court' refer to the senses and the eight dualistic consciousnesses." [DKRJ 235 "This is the position of the Svatantrika Madhyamikas. From the standpoint of the absolute truth, they argue that, if one assesses the two kinds of relative truth, both 'mistaken' and 'unmistaken' are on a level; they are the same in being produced by deluded propensities. Both appear to the senses and nei- ther has true existence. In conventional terms, however, some phenomena function (i.e., are efficient) and some do not. And this is called unmistaken and mistaken relative truth." [YG II, 452J 236 "For the Vaibhashikas, relative truth (kun razob bam pa) and imputed existence (btagsJoa) have the same meaning, and likewise absolute truth (aon aam) means the same thing as substantial existence (razasJoa)." [YG II, 466J 237 "The Sautrantikas are divided into two groups. The 'Sautrantikas following scripture' regard the seven sections of the Abhidharma as the shastras of the seven Arhats (Shariputra, etc.) but nonetheless regard them as authoritative (the Vaibhashikas regard them as Buddha-word). The 'Sautrantikas following reasoning' do not consider these shastras as scriptural authority (i.e., as pro- viding lung gi tshaa rna, or incontrovertible knowledge deriving from scripture) and have recourse to the sutras." [YG II, 469J 238 It is important to bear in mind that the "Sautrantikas following scripture" and the "Sautrantikas following reasoning" (see previous note) have different NOTES 481
ways of distinguishing between the relative and absolute truths. To all intents and purposes, the Sautrantikas following scripture share the same view as the Vaibhashikas in holding that the absolute truth consists in the indivisible particles, while gross extended objects constitute the relative truth. The doc- trine of the Sautrantikas following reasoning is more complex and involves an elaborate epistemological theory that in some respects resembles the repre- sentationist ideas of certain Western philosophers. Here, a distinction is made between the nonconceptual, direct perception of the sense consciousnesses and the conceptual, indirect perception of the mental consciousness. Whereas the sense consciousnesses actually contact external things, technically referred to as specifICally characterizea (rang mtshan), and which are no more than agglomer- ations of atoms, the mental consciousness identifies and knows objects only by virtue of a mental image which is described as generally characterizea (sp)'i mtshan). The mental consciousness does not know external objects but only mental images. Given that the Sautrantikas distinguish absolute and relative truths according to efficiency, that is, the ability to perform functions, it stands to reason that absoluteness is attributed to the external objects and relativeness to the corresponding mental image whereby recognition and knowledge take place. It is obviously only external objects that perform func- tions and not the mental image that the mind has of them. It is worth reflecting that for the Sautrantikas the division between the two truths does not occupy the same importance as it does for the Madhyamikas. This is because for the Sautrantikas the realization of the absolute truth (as defined by them) does not correspond to spiritual realization. Different commentar- ies show variant verb forms in the first half of stanza 132 (aon aam yoa min or aon aam yoa )'in). Following the commentary of Sogpo Ngawang Tendar (yon tan rin po che 'i mazoa k)'i aka' gnaa rao rje 'i rgya maua grel bJ'ea ltgs bshaa g)'i thur ma), we have preferred the latter in the translation of the root stanza.
239 For a description of the Chittamatra view, see Khenchen Kunzang Pelden, The Nectar ofManjushri's Spuch, pp. 31<)-320 and 326-332. See also S. K. Hook- ham, The Buaaha Within, pp. 1<)-20. 2 4 0 The absolute is (I) the mind itself, the stuff of which objects, wrongly imag- ined to be external entities, are "composed." It is absolute because, according to the Chittamatrins, the mind is an ultimate and irreducibly existent reality. The absolute truth consists (2) not only in the mind itself but in the fact that there is nothing but the mina and that any phenomena (kun brtags) only seem to be separate from it. 241 It seems that for the Svatantrikas, it is theoretically possible to confine oneself exclusively to the relative level and to discourse meaningfully about phenom- ena-the way they are and the way they function-without reference to the absolute truth. The absolute truth thus becomes a kind of overarching pro- viso to the effect that phenomena are completely without true existence, but it does not interfere with science and philosophy, which can continue on the relative level. It is still possible to philosophize. There is an obvious, and
probably indispensable, pedagogical advantage in the Svatantrika approach in that it provides space in which a teaching about the nature of phenomena can be elaborated in terms accessible to the ordinary intellect and which can thus help people to progress on the path. At the same time, the critique of the Prasangikas is understandable and inevitable. To say that phenomena have a natural existence of their own on the relative level amounts to attributing true existence to them. It is, so to speak, a ratification of the relative truth as being independently valid. The two truths are divided and their union is in practice abandoned. On the other hand, the purpose of Madhyamika is pre- cisely to undermine the tyranny of clinging to phenomena. It must compro- mise the status of phenomena radically, even on the relative level.
242 Compare T. R. V. Murti, Tht Ctntral Philosoph)I ojBuddhism, p. 87: "The Madhya- mika system seems to have been perfected at one stroke by the genius of its founder-Nagarjuna." 24J Perhaps a reference to Nagarjuna's legendary alchemical accomplishments. 244 According to Buton, Nagarjuna's six treatises on reasoning are: (I) MuLtmadh)Ia- maka-karika, dbu ma rtsa ba'i shts rab (preserved in Sanskrit); (2) Shunyatasaptati, stong nyid bdun beu pa (lost in Sanskrit but preserved in Tibetan); (J) Yuktishastika, rigs pa drug beu pa (lost in Sanskrit but preserved in Tibetan and Chinese); (4) Vigrahav;'avartani, rtsod zlog; (5) Vaida/yasutra and Prakarana, zhib mo rnam 'thag (lost in Sanskrit but preserved in Tibetan); and (6) Vyavaharasiddhi, tha snyad grub. 245 The Madh)!amakavatara is a general commentary on the meaning (don 'grtO of the Karikas, while the Prasannapada is a word-for-word commentary (tshig 'grtO. 246 Chandrakirti says: "When a state of mind attuned to emptiness becomes manifest, this is referred to as the realization of emptiness. But it does not mean that emptiness is realized as an object." [see YG II, 531] 247 They do not originate, they do not dwell, and they do not cease. 248 See the Samadhiraja-sutra: Intellectuals asserting being and nonbeing, Who thus investigate, will find no peace from suffering. Is and is not, pure-impure, Are both extreme positions. But even in the middle the wise forebear to dwell. [reference given in YG II, 5J7] 249 Emphasis here is placed on interdependence rather than on the number twelve. It is a statement about evolutionary causality arranged in a symmetri- cal formula, parallel to the twelvefold cycle of dependent causation as occur- ring in the existence of sentient beings. See OS, 28, where Oudjom Rinpoche says that outer dependent arising can be understood by analyzing from where phenomenal results have arisen.
250 "The notion of interdependence can also be applied to nirvana. For even though nirvana is not a product newly contrived on the basis of compounded phenomena, it is through the accomplishment of the path that adventitious obscurations are removed, that nirvana is actualized, and the creative virtuos- ity of uncompounded wisdom manifests unhindered." [YG II, 543]
251 gnyis mango The lingering appearance of phenomena as separate from the per- ceiver, even after the belief in their true existence has been abandoned. 252 "Some people object that if a sharp analyzing intellect is not operative at all times in the main meditation, and if there is not a cenain apprehension of, and (intellectual) conviction in, the absence of the personal and phenomenal self, the all-discerning wisdom which is the nature of vipashyana cannot occur. But if this were true it would imply that an analyzing intellect must also be present in the meditation of the Aryas-and even at the level of buddhahood. For those who make this objection say that without it there can be no wisdom of vipashyana. In answer, it may be argued that this does not necessarily follow, since, in the context of the present objection, the meditators are ordinary beings and not like the Aryas who have vipashyana due to their direct seeing of ultimate reality. Our answer to this is that, even if there is a certain distinction, according to a given situation, the mind must be attuned to the wisdom that sees the ultimate directly, and it must remain in this state. For a mind caught in ontological extremes cannot bring fonh the wisdom that transcends these extremes." [YG II, 549] 253 The formless realm has four spheres. Staning from the lowest one, these are: (I) nam mkha' mtha'yas, Infinite Space; (2) rnam shts mtha'yas, Infinite Conscious- ness; (3) ci J'ang mtd pa, Utter Nothingness; and (4) )Iod min mtd min, Neither Existence nor Nonexistence (also referred to as the Peak of Existence, srid pa'i rtst mo). 254 This means that they gradually spread downward, from the lowest level of the formless realm, through all the levels of the form realm, to the highest divine abode of the desire realm. 255 The six divine spheres of the realm of desire are in ascending order: (I) rg)'al chtn rigs bzhi, heaven of the Four Great Kings; (2) sum bcu rtsa gsum, heaven of the Thirty-three; (3) 'thab bra~ Free of Conflict; (4) dga' Idan, the Joyous Realm; (5) 'phTUI dga', Enjoying Magical Creations; and (6) gzhan 'phrul dbang bytd, Mas- tery over Magical Creations of Others. 256 Reference is normally made to four periods: (I) rdzogs Idan (perfect endow- ment), when beings are characterized by four features: infinite life, luminous body, miraculous abilities, and sustenance on amrita; (2) gsum Idan (threefold endowment), when beings have only three of these qualities; (3) gnyis Idan (twofold endowment), when they have only two qualities; and (4) rtsod Idan, when all four qualities have declined and beings live in a state of conflict. 257 rigs bzhi. The four social classes or castes correspond to four psychological
types as they originally developed when beings began to live in organized society and support themselves by their work. Insofar as it existed within the context of Indian society, Buddhism recognized the existence of the caste system. But in contrast to Hinduism, which is grounded in the Vedic scrip- tures and therefore assigned rigid ritual functions to the castes, Buddhism advocated spiritual practice for all members of society indifferently. The four castes are bram ze rigs, brahmins; rg)'al rigs, kshatriyas; rie 'u rigs, vaishyas; and dmangs rigs, sudras.
258 According to the Abhidharma, the actual sense faculties are subtle physical objects, variously shaped and located in their bodily supports. Thus, the faculty of sight is positioned in the eye and shaped like a blue flower, the faculty of hearing is in the ear and shaped like a roll of birch bark, and so on. 259 It is not certain which of these two events-light-appearance (snang ba) with the arresting of the thirty-three types of thought produced by anger, or light- increase (mched pa) with the halting of the forty types of thoughts of attach- ment-will appear first at the time of death. In this text, the dissolution of the red element is mentioned first, whereas it is often preceded by the white element. 260 mi mied Jig rtm. Our universe is so called because its inhabitants endure defiled emotion and suffering in great measure and Bodhisattvas endure hardships and practice with courage. The term mi mied can also be interpreted as "fear- less," in which case it is said to apply to our world because the beings therein show no fear of indulging in defilements. Yet another tradition interprets mi mied as "undivided" because in our world, the mind cannot be dissociated from defiled emotions. 26. bdun tshigs. Every week, in the course of the forty-nine days of the bardo period, on the day of the person's death, the consciousness "relives" the painful experience of the moment of death. The performance of the weekly ceremonies for the dead has the effect of alleviating this suffering. 262 Here the sun and the moon of the bodhichitta refer respectively to the male and female essences. 263 In the Abhidharmakosha, Vasubandhu explains each of the sixteen aspects in terms of an incorrect philosophical view to which it constitutes a remedy (see Roger Jackson, Is Enlightenment Possible? pp. 50, 344). 264 These last two aspects are to be understood as referring to the five aggregates of an individual. The third aspect, namely, that of their being without a "self that owns them," may also be understood as a denial of the existence of a universal Creator. 265 "Are all phenomena accounted for within the four truths? The answer to this is no, for it is asserted that certain things are not included, such as space NOTES 485
and nonanalytical cessation. How then are phenomena categorized? They are accounted for in the aggregate of form, the ayatana of the mind (the six types of consciousness), and mental objects (feelings, perceptions, conditioning fac- tors, imperceptible forms and uncompounded phenomena). [According to the Abhiaharmakosha, there are three uncompounded phenomena: space, cessa- tion through analysis, and cessation without analysis.] Are all the realizations of the Noble Path included within the four truths? Yes, and necessarily so. It should be understood that when cessation is spoken of in the context of the four noble truths, this refers only to cessation through analysis. Cessation without analysis and the absorption of cessation are not included. . . ." [YG I, ~61] For more information on the absorption of cessation, see note 14. 266 According to the Abhidharma (see Mipham Rinpoche's mkhas 'jug), perception is defined as "that which grasps or identifies characteristics" (mtshan par 'azin pa). Perception is related to the six senses: the five physical senses, which are nonconceptual, and the mind or "mental sense," which functions by means of concepts. These two categories of conceptual and nonconceptual percep- tions are themselves divided into two categories according to whether, in the course of their activity, they succeed in discerning the characteristics of their objects. If they do so, they are referred to as mtshan bcas (discerning); if they fail to do so, they are called mtshan mta (nondiscerning). The five (nonconcep- tual) sense perceptions are regarded as discerning (mtshan bcas) when they are operating normally and perceiving their proper objects: colors, sounds, smells, and so forth. Mental perception (which, as we have said, functions by means of concepts) is said to be discerning when it distinguishes identities or names. This happens (I) when the mind recognizes an object and correlates it with its name and (2) when the mind knows what is referred to when a name is given. Perception is nondiscerning (mtshan mta) when the sense organ in question is fully functional but there is no object. This occurs in states of profound absorption, whether of the Aryas or beings in the state known as the Peak of Existence. It occurs also when the mind is unable to identify and name ob- jects, as in situations where something is encountered but is not recognized because the mind has no prior knowledge of it. This is the common experi- ence of children, who are gradually building up a knowledge of their environ- ment. Conversely, mental perception is also nondiscerning when (again, through lack of experience) it does not know what is referred to when names are given, as, for example, when an unknown language is heard. (It should be noted that nondiscerning perception does not refer to the mere privation of sensory stimulus, as, for example, when one is in a dark place with one's eyes open or in a soundproof room. In these cases, the senses do in fact have objects----darkness and silence, respectively.) [see KJ, 9-10] 267 For the Prasangikas, the !tun razob batn pa has three aspects: (I) yid rtog sp)'oa k)'i shu pa, discursive mind; (2) ngag gi brjoa pa, verbal expression; and (~) Ius ngag gi 'jug pa, speech and physical acts.
268 In this (Abhidharma) context, the Tibetan terms blo, )'id, and rigs pa are all synonyms (whereas in Dzogchen they have different meanings).
269 The absolute nature is one and indivisible. One cannot speak, for example, of a table and a chair having different absolute natures. 270 If the absolute is beyond the intellect, how can it be realized by beings? In answer to this, Mipham Rinpoche says that the absolute truth can be approximately understood by the (ordinary) mind. It can be the object of intellect, as it were, on a provisional and temporary basis. In this case, the absolute truth is described negatively (apophatically) as a nonaffirming nega- tion (med dgag). This refers to rnam gcod, a process of exclusion, a logical analysis in which the existence of an object is searched for and found to be absent, so that absence or "nonfinding" (regarded as its ultimate condition) is the object of the intellect. It is only in this sense that the absolute can be understood by the ordinary mind. However, in the terms of the yogic experi- ence of genuine realization of the absolute, which is utterly beyond the divi- sion into subject and object, the intellect is transcended with the result that the absolute cannot be- said to be its object. This discovered state is an e-xpe-rience- of the- absolute- that can only be de-scribed as an affirming ne-gative- (ma yin dgag). It is not a mere nothingness, a mere "nonfinding"; it is the manifestation of the fundamental nature of the mind, even though this is totally be-yond conception and de-scription. To deny this last point would be- tantamount to saying that ultimate realization, buddhahood, is itself a mere vacuIty. 271 Se-e Khe-nchen Kunzang Pelden, The NtCtar oj Manjushri's SpetCh, p. 315. 272 In other words, fire arises from the presence of fuel and the act of ignition, wate-r is the combination of hydrogen and oxygen, and so on. 273 In other words, argume-nts that are driving at the ultimate nature- of the object. 274 Existe-nce- cannot be ascribe-d to them simply on the grounds that they func- tion according to conventional expectations. 275 In othe-r words, they refrain from propounding a theory about conventional phenomena. 276 Of these e-ight, the- first six are nonaffirming ne-gative-s (med dgag); the last two are affirming negative-s (ma )'in dgag). 277 In other words, as long as one is thinking of them at all (with the ordinary intellect), one- cannot but think of them as things separate from the mind; one cannot but be imprisoned in duality. 278 The thre-e- modes (tshul gsum) are- three- criteria that establish the correctness of a syllogism as use-d in traditional Indian logic. See Daniel Perdue, Debatt in Tibetan Buddhism, p. 38ff.
279 When relative phenomena are subjected to analysis, they are found to be devoid of inherent existence. Their emptiness is established and this is their absolute truth. When, however, emptiness is itself subjected to inquiry, it too becomes a conventionality and is itself found to be empty of inherent exis- tence. Nothing that is made the object of intellectual analysis can be found to have absolute reality. 280 This is the traditional form of the syllogism in Indian logic. 281 Ofcourse, on the absolute level, they deny that the mind exists in an ultimate sense, and the view is thus different from that of the Chittamatra or Yoga- chara school. The position of Shantarakshita and Kamalashila is a synthesis of the Madhyamika and Chittamatra approaches and as such is regarded as the last great development in the history of Buddhist philosophy in India. 282 As in the case of Buddhapalita and Chandrakirti among the Prasangika Madhyamikas. The founder of a school (shing rta srol 'b;,ta, the maker of the chariot way) is considered to be not the master who first expressed a given idea, but the one who elaborated it into a fully fledged system. Thus, although Buddhapalita was the first to identify the Consequence (prasanga) as the method best expressive of Nagarjuna's intention, it was Chandrakirti who brought this insight into focus and organized it into a complete philosophical statement. 283 The point is that, while Prasangika is acknowledged as the supreme view, the Svatantrika approach is important as a preparation and propaedeutic and is therefore extremely valuable. This appreciation of Svatantrika is characteristic of the Nyingmapa school, for Shantarakshita was one of the founding fathers of the Tibetan tradition. 284 The meaning of this is that if, having refuted "true existence," we are left with phenomena untouched, as it were, we have not got very far in dealing with our cravings. 285 This would surely be more effective than trying to enter the dreamer's dream in order either to save him from what he is dreaming about or telling him, "You are only dreaming." 286 Unless and until we are made to see that self (ego) is unreal and purely imagined, the apprehension of, or clinging to, self cannot be dissipated. The only way that the man in the example can overcome his fear of the snake is to be shown that there is no snake there, but only a heap of rope. Without this, it is impossible for him simply to stop being afraid. 287 It is important to realize that the person in the sense of a sentient (e.g., human) being is not the same thing as the "personal self," which here corre- sponds to the subjective experience of "ego," of being "I." It is from the point of view of this subjective self that all other things, including other people as well as one's own psychophysical constituents, are regarded as phe- nomena.
288 The inherent~1 existent ego and phenomena are purely imaginary. On the relative level, there is only a "person" and "phenomena," which are nothing but imputations projected onto the appropriate constituents, and the latter are, of course, transitory phenomena. In other words, although "clinging to self" is real enough, the object of clinging (an inherently existent self) is a mere figment, as nonexistent as the apparent snake.
289 That is, the person and phenomena simply as they appear in common experi- ence, but which are not inherently existent. 290 Clinging to the personal self constitutes the "emotional veil," so called be- cause all the defiled emotions arise from attachment to "I" and "mine." Cling- ing to the phenomenal self constitutes the "cognitive veil." This refers to clinging to the real existence of subject, object, and action, which thus ob- scures omniscience. 291 Real existence, angos po: all that appears as having origin, duration, and cessa- tion. See Khenchen Kunzang Pelden, The Nectar ofManjushri's Speech, p. 330: "In this context, 'things' are explained as referring to conventionalities validly perceived through sight, hearing, or the mind. And here, 'sight' refers to sense perceptions generally; 'hearing' refers to reports from other sources; and 'mind' refers to the process of inference." 292 In other words, emptiness is not a predicate. It cannot be ascribed to phenom- ena, which somehow retain their supposedly independent status irrespective of the ascription. 293 These four alternatives refer to specific positions taken in Indian philosophy with regard to the problem of causality and which the Madhyamika subjects to criticism and explodes. The first, namely, the view that causes and effects are manifestations of a single substance, is the position of the Samkhya school. The second view, that causes and effects are of a different nature, is the position taken by the lower schools o f Buddhism (including the Svatantri- kas) and which the Prasangikas show to be just as problematic as the first view. The third position, which is an attempt to combine the positions of views one and two, is characteristic of the Jaina school (and of Hegel in the West), while the fourth position, which amounts to a rejection of causality altogether, is the standpoint of the Charvaka or materialist skeptics. 294 The whole language of causality implies difference and cannot be accounted for by a theory of identity in which the effect is merely the self-expression of the cause. In other words, as the text shows, an insistence on the identity of cause and effect cannot be combined with talk about causality, for this neces- sarily involves distinctions between the two terms of the process. Causality is in effect abandoned. 295 In other words, it is impossible to establish a link between producer and product.
296 To abandon causality altogether amounts to the belief that the universe is in chaos. This being so, there is no way to account for the manifest order visible in the phenomenal world. It also stultifies all human endeavor in which ac- tions are undertaken with a view to obtaining certain results, including the attempt to communicate a theory of causeless origination. Thus, even if a theory of pure randomness is propounded, the fact is that no sane person, including the formulator of such a position, ever lives by it. 297 The Sevenfold Reasoning is expounded at length in the sixth chapter of the Maahyamakavatara of Chandrakirti. 298 Some of these qualities may be practiced by Bodhisattvas on the path of learn- ing. They come to full fruition, however, only in the state of buddhahood. 299 In this context, freedom is understood as a state of mind totally divested of the obscurations that block the subsequently listed realizations. 300 See Khenchen Kunzang Pelden, Tht Nutar of Manjushri's Spuch, p. 382: ". . . all phenomena, which appear to exist in the manner of cause, result, and nature, are the three doors of liberation. The examination of causes shows that they are (I) devoid of all conceptual characteristics [in other words there are no causesJ. As regards the nature of phenomena, analysis shows that this is (2) emptiness. And as for the results, analysis reveals that they are (3) beyond expectancy."
Glossary both to exist and not to exist; and they cannot be said neither to exist nor not to exist.
ABSOLUTE TRUTH, don dam bdtn pa. The ultimate nature of the mind and the true status of all phenomena, the state beyond all conceptual constructs which can be known only by primordial wisdom and in a manner that transcends duality. Thus defined, this is the absolute truth "in-itself" (rnam grangs ma yin pa'i don dam), which is ineffable. This is different from the likeness or similitude of the absolute truth that is experienced or known as one approaches it through the avenues ofrational analysis and meditation on the absence oforigin and so on. For here one is still within the sphere of the relative truth. Nevertheless, since this is the authentic method of progressing toward a direct realization of the absolute and is in accord with it, it is called the "approximate" absolute (rnam grangs pa'i don dam) or "concordant" absolute (mthun pa'i don dam). ABSOLUTE WISDOM, don lJ,i )'t shts. Primordial knowledge, divested of the dualistic mental activity characteristic of the ordinary mind, which "sees" (nondualisti- cally) the ultimate reality or absolute truth. ABSORPTION OF CESSATION, gog pa'i sn)'oms Jug. According to the Mahayana pre- sentation, this is the absorption practiced by the Shravakas and Pratyekabud- dhas as a means of gaining contentment in the course of their present existence. It involves the cessation of the sense consciousnesses and the defiled emotional
consciousness. Bodhisattvas also enter this absorption, not, however, as an end in itself, but as a method of training in concentration.
ABSORPTION OF NONPERCEPTION, 'du shes med pa'i m)'oms Jug. The absorption experienced by the insensate gods of the form realm and the gods of the formless realms. In this absorption, the sense consciousnesses are arrested al- though the defiled emotional consciousness (nyon yid) continues to function. ACCOMPLISHMENT, dngos grub. Accomplishment is described as either supreme or ordinary. Supreme accomplishment is the attainment of buddhahood. "Com- mon or ordinary accomplishments" are the miraculous powers acquired in the course of spiritual training. The attainment of these powers, which are similar in kind to those acquired by the practitioners of some non-Buddhist traditions, are not regarded as ends in themselves. When they arise, however, they are taken as signs of progress on the path and are employed for the benefit of the teachings and disciples. ACCUMULATE AN ACTION, las gsogs pa. To perform an action or karma. Actions leave traces in the alaya and will subsequently fructify in the sense of bringing fonh experiential effects. ACHARYA, Skt., slob dpon. Teacher, the equivalent of spiritual master or lama. ADVENTITIOUS VEIL OR STAIN, glo bur g)'i dri mao Impermanent emotional and cognitive obscurations that afflict the mind but which, not being intrinsic to its nature, can be removed from it. See Two obscurations; Twofold purity. AFFIRMING NEGATIVE, ma yin dgag. An affirming negative is a negation in which the possibility of another (positive) value is implied. For example, in the state- ment "It isn't a cat that is on the roof," the presence of a cat is denied, but in such a way as to suggest that something else is there. Compare this with a nonaffirming negative (med dgag), which simply negates without any further implication, for example, in the statement "There is nothing on the roof." AFFLICTIONS, n)'on mongs pa, Skt. klesha. Mental factors that produce states of mental torment both immediately and in the long term. The five principal kleshas, which are sometimes called poisons, are attachment, hatred, ignorance, envy, and pride. AGG REGATES, phung po. See Skandhas. AKANISHTA, Skt., 'og min. In general, the highest of all buddhafields, the place where, according to Vajrayana, Bodhisattvas attain final buddhahood. There are, in fact, six levels of Akanishta, ranging from the highest heaven of the form realm up to the ultimate pure land of the Dharmakaya. ALA YA, Skt., kun gzhi, lit. the ground-of-alI. According to the Mahayana, this is the fundamental and indeterminate level of the mind, in which karmic imprints are stored. 492 GLOSSARY
ALL-CONCEALING TRUTH. Stt Relative truth.
AMRITA, Skt., bdud rtsi, lit. the ambrosia that overcomes the Demon of Death. The draft of immortality and symbol of wisdom. ANCIENT TRANSLATION SCHOOL, gsang sngags snga g)'ur. Referred to also as the Nyingma or Ancient school, the original tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. Its adherents study and practice the tantras (and their related teachings) that were translated in the first period between the introduction of the Buddhadharma to Tibet in the eighth century and the period of New Translation inaugurated by Rinchen Zangpo (958-1051). ANUYOGA. The second of the inner tantras, according to the system of nine vehicles used in the Nyingma tradition. Anuyoga emphasizes the perfection stage of tantric practice, which consists of meditation on emptiness, as well as the subtle channels, energies, and essence of the physical body. ApPROACH, ACCOMPLISHMENT, AND ACTIV A TION, bsn)'en pa, grub pa, las sbyor. Three consecutive stages in the practice of a sadhana. In the first stage the practitioner becomes familiar with the figure and mandala of the meditational deity. In the second stage, the deity is "accomplished," and in the third, differ- ent enlightened activities are practiced. ARHAT, Skt., dgra bcom pa, lit. "Foe Destroyer." One who has vanquished the enemies of afflictive emotion and realized the nonexistence of the personal self, and who is thus forever free from the sufferings of samsara. Arhatship is the goal of the teachings of the Root Vehicle, the Shravakayana or Hinayana. Etymologically, the Sanskrit term can also be interpreted as "worthy one." ARYA, Skt., 'phags pa. Sublime or noble one, one who has transcended samsaric existence. There are four classes of sublime beings: Arhats, Pratyekabuddhas, Bodhisattvas, and Buddhas. ARYADEVA, 'phags pa lha. The direct disciple and "heart son" of Nagarjuna. He was a powerful advocate of Nagarjuna's teaching later to be known as the Madhyamika. He probably lived at the tum of the second and third centuries C.E. H is most celebrated work is the Catuhshatakashastra-karika, The Four Hundred Vtrses on the Middle Wa)'. ASANGA, thog med, c. 350 C.E., a major figure in Mahayana Buddhism; the cofounder, with his brother Vasubandhu, of the Yogachara philosophy. According to tra- dition, he received from the Bodhisattva Maitreya the famous Five Teachings (byams pa'i chos Inga) in which the views of Madhyamika and Yogachara are both expounded. He is the source of the Mahayana lineage of Vast Activities (rgya chen SJ'.)'od pa), which complements the lineage of the Profound View (zab mo'i Ita ba) stemming from N agarjuna and Manjushri. ASHVAGHOSHA, rta dbyangs. Originally a Hindu scholar who converted to Maha- yana Buddhism under the influence of Aryadeva. He is sometimes identified GLOSSARY 493
with the master Shura (dpa' bo). A great poet, as imponant in the history of Sanskrit literature as in the history of Buddhism, he is celebrated as the author of a celebrated account of the Buddha's life, the Buddhacharita.
ASPIRATIONAL PRACTICE, mos spyod k)'i sa. All practice prior to the attainment of the path of seeing, in which ultimate reality is perceived directly, is regarded as being of the nature of aspiration or interest. ASURA, Skt., lha min, demigod or "Titan." One of six classes of beings in samsara. The asuras are usually considered to be similar to the gods, with whom they are sometimes classified. Their dominant emotional characteristic is envy, and they are constantly at war with the gods, of whom they are jealous. ATI, ATIYOGA. The last and highest of the inner tantras, the summit of the system of nine vehicles according to the Nyingma classification; a synonym of Dzogchen (rdzogs pa chen po), the Great Perfection. ATISHA, jo bo rje. Also known as Dipamkarashrijnana (982-1054), abbot of the Indian monastic university of Vikramashila. Philosophically, he is considered to be Prasangika Madhyamika in the school of Chandrakirti, although he also upheld the teachings of the Yogachara Madhyamika. He came to Tibet at the invitation of the king Yeshe 0 to restore the Buddhadharma after its persecu- tion by Langdarma. He introduced there the Mind Training teachings (blo 'byongs), which he received from his teacher Suvarnadvipa Dharmakini and which are a synthesis of the bodhichitta traditions of Nagarjuna and Asanga. He was also a master of the tantra teachings. His main disciple and successor was the upasaka DromtOn ('brom ston), who founded the Kadampa school and built the monastery of Reting (rwa sgreng). Atisha died at Nyethang in Tibet in 1°54· ATTACHMENT AND IMPEDIMENT, chags thogs. Set Two obscurations. AVALOKITESHVARA, Skt., sp)'an ras gzigs. The "Lord who Sees," name of the Bo- dhisattva who embodies the speech and compassion of all the Buddhas; the Sambhogakaya emanation of the Buddha Amitabha; sometimes referred to as Lokeshvara, the Lord of the World. AYATANA, Skt., sk)'e mched. Sometimes translated as "sense fields." The "six inner ayatanas" refer exclusively to the sense organs; the "twelve ayatanas" comprise these six plus the "six outer ayatanas," which are the corresponding sense ob- jects. (The outer and inner ayatanas of the mind are the mental sense organ and mental objects. Here, the mental "organ" is the moment of consciousness immediately preceding the moment in which the mental object is perceived.) From the interaction of the six sense organs and their six objects, the six consciousnesses are engendered. BARDO, bar do. An intermediary state. This term most often refers to the state between death and subsequent rebinh. In fact, human experience encompasses 494 GLOSSARY
six types of bardo: the bardo of the present life (rang bzhin sk)'t gnas bar ao), the bardo of meditation (bsam gtan gyi bar ao), the bardo of dream (rmi lam g)'i bar ao), the bardo of dying ('chi ka'i bar ao), the luminous bardo of ultimate reality (chos n)'ia bar ao), and the bardo of becoming (sr;a pa'i bar ao). The first three bardos unfold in the course of life. The second three refer to the death and rebinh process which terminates at conception at the beginning of the subse- quent eXistence.
BEINGS OF GREAT SCOPE, skyts bu chen po. Practitioners of the Mahayana teachings who, out of compassion, aspire to buddhahood in order to help beings in the immediate term and to lead them ultimately to enlightenment. BEINGS OF LESSER SCOPE, skyts bu chung ngu. Beings who aspire to happiness in the human and divine realms and who, in order to gain it, consciously practice pure ethics according to the karmic law of cause and effect. BEINGS OF MIDDLE SCOPE, sk)'tS bu 'bring. Practitioners of the Hinayana teachings who aspire to liberation from the cycle of existences. BEZOAR, gi wang. A concretion found in the stomachs or entrails of certain animals and which is endowed with medicinal propenies. BHAGAVAN, bcom /Jan 'aas. An epithet of the Buddha sometimes translated as the Blessed One or the Blessed Lord. The title can be analyzed etymologically as "the one who has vanquished (bcom) the four demons, who possesses (/Jan) all qualities and who is beyond ('aas) samsara and nirvana." BHAvAVIVEKA, ltgs /Jan 'b.>'ta. An important fifth-century master of the Madhya- mika teachings and initiator of the Svatantrika school. Set also Svatantrika. BHIKSHU, Skt., agt slong. A fully ordained Buddhist monk. BHUMI, Skt., sa. Set Ground. BHUTICHANDRA. Disciple of Shakya Shri (thineenth century) and exponent of the three vows. BODHICHARYAVATARA, spyoa Jug. Shantideva's famous text, expounding the prac- tice of the Bodhisattva path. BODHICHITTA, Skt., byang chub k)'i stms. On the relative level, this is the wish to attain buddhahood for the sake of all sentient beings, together with the practice necessary to accomplish this. On the absolute level, it is nondual wisdom, the ultimate nature of the mind and the true status of all phenomena. In certain tantric contexts, bodhichitta refers to the essential physical substance which is the support of the mind. BODHISATTVA, Skt., b.>'ang chub stms apa'. One who through compassion strives to attain the full enlightenment of buddhahood for the sake of all beings. Bodhi- sattvas may be "ordinary" or "noble" depending on whether they have attained the path of seeing and are residing on one of the ten bodhisattva grounds. GLOSSAR Y 495
BODY, sku, Skt. kaya. See Five Bodies.
BRAHMA, Skt., tshangs pa. In the Buddhist tradition, this name refers to the chief divinity residing in the form realm. BRAHMIN, Skt., bram ze. A member o f the priestly caste o f ancient India; this term often indicates hermits and spiritual practitioners. It should be noted that the Buddha rejected the caste system and proclaimed on several occasions that the true Brahmin is not someone so designated through an accident of birth, but one who has thoroughly overcome defilement and attained freedom. Set also Four castes. BUDDHA, sangs rg)'as. The Fully Awakened One, a being who has removed the emotional and cognitive veils and is endowed with all enlightened qualities of realization. BUDDHAFIELD, zhing khams. From a certain point of view, a buddhafield is a sphere or dimension projected and manifested by a Buddha or great Bodhisattva, in which beings may abide and progress toward enlightenment without ever faIl- ing into lower states of existence. However, any place viewed as the pure manifestation of spontaneous wisdom is a buddhafield. BUDDHAGHOSHA. A celebrated founh-century master of the Theravada, contem- porary of Asanga and Vasubandhu. He was the author of the Visuddhimagga, a text greatly revered in Theravada Buddhism as the classic presentation of their tradition. BUDDHAGUHYA, sangs rg)'as gsang ba. A master of Mahayoga and teacher of both Guru Padmasambhava and Vimalamitra. He composed the celebrated Gradual Path of the Magical Net. BUDDHAPALITA, sangs rg)'as sk)longs. Fifth-century master of Madhyamika who first explicitly assetted prasanga or reductio ad absurdum as the appropriate method for Madhyamika disputation, thereby heralding the Prasangika Madhyamika school as later systematized by Chandrakirti. BUTON, bu ston. A renowned scholar (1290-1364) famous for his compilation of the Kangyur and Tengyur, and author of an important Historyl of Dharma. CENTRAL LAND, yul dbus. A land in which the Dharma is taught and practiced, as opposed to the peripheral or barbarous lands, so called because the Buddha's teachings are unknown there. From this standpoint, a country devoid of Dharma will still be termed barbarous, even though it may possess a high level of civilization and technology. CESSATION THROUGH ANALYSIS, so sor brtags pa'i gog pa. The cessation of afflictive emotion brought about by an analytical understanding, or wisdom, that elimi- nates the conditions in which such affliction can occur. The cessation itself is a nirvana (the "small nirvana" of Arhats) and is regarded as an "uncompounded phenomenon." 496 GLOSSARY
CESSATION WITHOUT ANALYSIS. Stt Nonanalytical cessation.
CHAKRA, 'khor 10, lit. wheel. These are centers of the psychophysical wind energy located at the different points on the central channel, from which smaller channels radiate to the rest of the body. Depending on the teachings and practice in question, their number varies from four to six. CHAKRAVARTIN, Skt., 'khor 10 sg)'ur ba'i rg)'al po. A universal monarch, the name given to a special kind of exalted being who has dominion over a greater or lesser part of the three-thousandfold universe. According to traditional cosmol- ogy, such beings appear only when the human life span surpasses eighty thou- sand years. By analogy, the word is also used as a title for a great king. CHANDRAGOMIN, zla ba. An Indian lay scholar and contemporary of Chandrakirti. He was associated with the university of Nalanda and was widely reputed for his immense learning in the Mahayana teachings and all kinds of secular knowl- edge, being, among other things, a renowned grammarian. He also practiced the tantras and attained high realization. CHANDRAKIRTI, zla bagrags pa. A sixth-century Indian master and author of unpar- alleled dialectical skill. He followed the Madhayamika tradition of Nagarjuna and reaffirmed the prasangika standpoint of Buddhapalita, against Bhavaviveka, as the supreme philosophical position of the Mahayana. He is thus regarded as the systematizer and founder of the Prasangika Madhyamika school. CHANNELS, ENERGIES, AND ESSENCE DROPS, rtsa rlung thig It, Skt. nadi, prana, bindu. The subtle channels, wind energies, and essences, brought under control in the practice of Anuyoga. CHARVAKAS, rgyang 'phtn pa. Members of an ancient Indian philosophical school professing metaphysical nihilism. The Charvakas denied causality, the law of karma, and the existence of past and future lives. C HITTAMATRINS, snns tsam pa, lit. the upholders of "mind-only." Followers of the Chittamatra (also called the Yogachara) philosophy of the Mahayana, which assens the self-cognizing mind as the ultimate reality and identifies shunyata, or emptiness, as the absence of the subject-object dualism that overspreads and obscures the underlying pure consciousness. The Chittamatra or Yogachara school was founded by Asanga and his brother Vasubandhu (fourth century), who base themselves on the scriptures of the third turning of the Dharma wheel, such as the Sanahinirmochana-sutra. CHO, gcoa, lit. cutting. A meditative and ritual practice, based on the prajnapara- mita, involving a visualization in which the physical body is offered as food to evil or dangerous spirits, the purpose being to destroy or "cut" the four demons within. Cho was introduced to Tibet by the Indian master Padampa Sangye and his Tibetan disciple the yogini Machig Labdron. GLOSSARY 497
CLEAR LIGHT, 'od gsal. The name of the third level in the second samadhi of the form realm.
COGNITIVE OBSCURATIONS, shts sgrib. Dualistic thought processes that apprehend subject, object, and action as being truly existent and which thus act as obstruc- tions to the mind's omniscience. COMPOUNDED PHENOMENON, 'dus h)'as. A phenomenon belonging to the relative level, so called because it appears to arise, abide, and eventually cease. CONCEIVED OBJECT, zhtn yuL A technical term in Buddhist logic, used to refer to objects of the conceptual consciousness that identifies and names things. It thus refers to sense objects as apprehended by this consciousness, but also to imaginary objects that are mistakenly assumed to exist (e.g., the "self"). CONQUEROR, rgyal ba, Skt. jina. An epithet of the Buddha. D AKA, Skt., dpa' bo, lit. hero. A name given to male Bodhisattvas in the tantras; the male equivalent of a dakini. DAKINI, Skt., mkha' 'dro rna, lit. moving through space. The representation of wisdom in female form. There are several levels of dakini: wisdom dakinis, who have complete realization, and worldly dakinis, who possess various spiri- tual powers. The word is also used as a title for great women teachers and as a respectful form o f address to the wives o f spiritual masters. DEFEAT, pham pa. A type of transgression of the precepts, a misdemeanor that brings about a complete destruction of the vow. DEFILED EMOTION AL CONSCIOUSN ESS, nyon yid. Stt Eight consciousnesses. DEFILED EMOTIONS, nyon mongs pa. Skt. klesha. Stt Afflictions. DEFILEMENTS, sgrib pa. Stt Obscurations. DEMON, bdud, Skt. mara. This term is used to designate either a malevolent spirit or, symbolically, a negative force or obstacle on the path. The Four Demons (bdud bzhQ are of the latter kind. The Demon of the Aggregates refers to the five skandhas (body, feeling, perception, conditioning factors, and conscious- ness), as described in Buddhist teaching, which form the basis of suffering in samsara. The Demon of the Defilements refers to the afflictive emotions, which provoke suffering. The Demon of Death refers not only to death itself but to the momentary transience of all phenomena, the nature of which is suffering. The Demon Child of the Gods refers to mental wandering and the attachment to phenomena apprehended as truly existent. DEPENDENT ARISING, rIm 'brtl bcugnyis. A fundamental element o f Buddhist teach- ing according to which phenomena are understood not as discretely existent entities, but as the coincidence of interdependent conditions. The classic for- 498 GLOSSARY
mulation of this doctrine is found in the teaching on the twelve links of dependent arising, which, together with the four noble truths, constitutes the teachings of the first turning of the wheel of Dharma. This fundamental expo- sition, given by the Buddha at Sarnath shortly after his enlightenment, expresses the doctrines of the Hinayana. The doctrine of interdependence is, however, pervasive and is formulated variously according to different levels of teaching. Most importantly, it was interpreted by Nagarjuna as the essential meaning of shunyata, or emptiness, the ultimate nature of phenomena.
DESIRE REALM, 'dod khams. The six samsaric states of hell beings, pretas, animals, humans, asuras, and the six classes of the lower gods. The six divine spheres are called: (I) the heaven of the Four Great Kings (rg)'al chen rigs bzhi); (2) the heaven of the Thirty-three (sum bcu rtsa gsum); (3) Free of Conflict ('thab bral); (4) Joyous Realm (dga' /Jan); (5) Enjoying Magical Creations ('phrul dga'); and (6) Mastery over Magical Creations of Others (gzhan 'phrul dbang byed). The desire realm is so called because the beings inhabiting it are prey to Intense emotion and crave happiness based on the pleasures of the senses. DHARANI, Skt., gzungs. A verbal formula, often quite long, blessed by a Buddha or a Bodhisattva, similar to the mantras of the Vajrayana but found also in the sutra tradition. The term is also used to refer to the accomplishment of unfail- . Ing memory. DHARMA, Skt., chos. This Sanskrit term is the normal word used to indicate the Doctrine of the Buddha. In fact the term has ten meanings (see note 82). The Dharma of transmission refers to the corpus of verbal teachings, whether oral or written. The Dharma of realization refers to the spiritual qualities resulting from the practice of these teachings. DHARMADHATU, Skt., chos dt,'ings. The expanse of ultimate reality, emptiness. DHARMAKAYA, Skt., chos sku. See Five Bodies. DHARMAPALAS, Skt., chos sk)'ong. Protectors of the teachings. These are either enlightened beings or spirits and gods who have been subjugated by great masters and bound under oath to guard the teachings. Their task is to protect the Doctrine, its upholders, and its practitioners. DHARMATA, Skt., chos n)'id. Suchness, the ultimate nature of phenomena- emptlness. DHATu, Skt., khams bco brg),ad. A "sphere" of experience involving a sense power, its object, and the consciousness arising from their conjunction. Although a dhatu in this sense may be considered as a composite of these three elements, in fact each of these elements is referred to as a dhatu in its own right. Thus, the six senses, six objects, and six corresponding consciousnesses may be re- ferred to as the eighteen dhatus, as expounded in the Abhidharma. GLOSSAR Y 499
DIAMOND VEHICLE. Stt Vajrayana.
DOMINANT CONDITION, baag po'i rk),tn. One of the four conditions systematized by Vasubandhu in his Abhiaharmakosha to explain the functioning of causality. The other three are the causal condition (rgyu'i rk),tn), the immediately preced- ing condition (at ma thag pa'i rk),tn), and the objective condition (amigs pa'i rk),tn). DOWNFALL, ltung ba. A transgression of one of the precepts, which, if not properly confessed and repaired, will result in rebirth in the lower realms. DUALITY, DUALISTIC PERCEPTION, gn)'is 'azin, gzung 'azin. The perception of ordi- nary beings. The apprehension of phenomena in terms of subject and object, and the belief in their true existence. EFFECTS SIMILAR TO THE CAUSE, rg)'u mthun g),i 'bras bu. Karmic effects that in some way resemble the kind of actions that give rise to them. These may be "active," in the sense of being a spontaneous inclination to repeat the former action, or "passive," in the sense of being experiences that mirror the quality of the previous action. The former may be exemplified by children who take a natural pleasure in killing insects-a predisposition acquired through having indulged in such activity in previous existences. An instance of the latter would be the experience of poor health and short life, the passive result of killing. EIGHT ANCILLARY CONTINENTS, gling phran brg)'aa. Stt Four continents. EIGHT CLOSE SONS, n)'t ba'i sras brgyaa. The eight main Bodhisattvas in the retinue of Buddha Shakyamuni. They are: Akashagarbha, Avalokiteshvara, Kshitigar- bha, Maitreya, Manjushri, Samantabhadra, Sarvanivaranavishkambhin, and Vajrapani. Symbolically they represent the pure state of the eight conscious- nesses. EIGHT CONDITIONS THAT LACK FREEDOM TO PRACTICE THE DHARMA, mi aal ba brgyad. Eight existential states in which spiritual growth is either impossible or severely hampered. These are the conditions of hell beings, pretas, animals, long-lived gods without perception, the inhabitants of barbarous lands, people who are severely handicapped physically and mentally, and people who espouse false beliefs or who live in a kalpa in which no Buddha has appeared. EIGHT CONSCIOUSN ESSES, tshogs brgyad, lit. eight gatherings. A way o f classifying the functions of the mind according to the Chittamatra school, also used in the Vajrayana. The eight types of consciousness are the five sense consciousnesses followed by the mental consciousness, the defiled emotional consciousness of conceiving "I," and the consciousness of the alaya, the fundamental level of the mind. EIGHT EXTREMES, mtha' brg)'aa. Phenomena are beyond the extremes of cessation and origin; they are not annihilated and they are not permanent; they do not come and they do not go; they are not distinct and they are not one. Parallel with this, they are like dreams, illusions, mirages, reflections, optical illusions, 500 GLOSSARY
echoes, castles in the clouds, and magical displays. These eight similes illustrate the indivisibility of the absolute and relative truths.
EIGHT TYPES OF SUFFERING, sdug bsngal brg),ad. A classification o f sufferings partic- ularly associated with the human condition. These are birth, old age, sickness, death, and the sufferings of encountering enemies, of being separated from loved ones, of not having what one wants, and of having to put up with what one does not want. EIGHT WORLDLY CONCERNS, Jig rUn chos brgyad. The habitual preoccupations that continually and inevitably afflict beings until they attain the path of seeing and completely transcend the ego. They are concern for gain and loss, comfort and discomfort, good and evil reputation, and praise and blame. EIGHTFOLD NOBLE PATH, 'phags pa'i lam gyi )'an lag brgyad. Right View, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration. These constitute the scheme of moral and spiritual disciplines leading to enlightenment expounded by the Buddha in the course of his teaching on the four noble truths at Sarnath. As such, they form the backbone of the fundamental practice of Buddhism. EMPOWERMENT, dbang, Skt. abhisheka. Empowerment or initiation. O f these two terms, "initiation," though in many ways unsatisfactory, has the advantage of indicating that it is the point of entry into tantric practice. On the other hand, "empowerment" is closer to the Tibetan word and refers to the transference of wisdom power, from the master to disciples, authorizing and enabling them to engage in the practice and reap its fruit. In general, there are four levels of tantric empowerment. The first is the Vase Empowerment, which purifies the defilements and obscurations associated with the body, grants the blessings of the vajra body, authorizes the disciples to practice the yogas of the generation stage, and enables them to attain the Nirmanakaya. The second is the Secret Empowerment. This purifies the defilements and obscurations of the speech faculty, grants the blessings of vajra speech, authorizes disciples to practice the yogas of the perfection stage, and enables them to attain the Sambhogakaya. The third empowerment is the Wisdom Empowerment. This purifies the de- filements and obscurations associated with the mind, grants the blessings of the vajra mind, authorizes disciples to practice the yogas of the "Skillful Path," and enables them to attain the Dharmakaya. The final empowerment, which is often simply referred to as the Fourth Initiation, is the Precious Word Empowerment. This purifies the defilements of body, speech, and mind and all karmic and cognitive obscurations; it grants the blessings of primordial wisdom, authorizes disciples to engage in the practice of Dzogchen, and en- ables them to attain the Svabhavikakaya. EMPTINESS, stong pa n),id. Skt. shunyata. The ultimate nature of phenomena (namely, their lack of inherent existence) beyond the four ontological extremes. GLOSSARY 501
ENJOYING MAGICAL CREATIONS, 'phrul aga', Skt. Nirmanarati. The fifth divine sphere of the desire realm, in which the gods can magically produce whatever they wish.
ENLIGHTENMENT, byang chub, Skt. bodhi. Stt Nirvana. EPHEMERAL HELLS, n)'i tshe ba'i am)'al ba. Infernal states, of varying duration, in which beings suffer due to the fact that they identify as their bodies physical objects such as logs of wood or stoves and suffer the effects of the use to which these objects are put (logs being burned, stoves being heated, doors being slammed, etc.). ETERNALISM, rtag par Ita ba. One of two "extreme" views (the other being nihil- ism); the belief in eternally existing entities such as a divine creator or the soul. EVIL FORCE, baua. Stt Demon. EXAMPLE WISDOM, ape'i )'e shes. A foretaste or illustration of the absolute wisdom. Example wisdom is not totally devoid of conceptual mind. EXPEDIENT MEANING, arang aon. Teachings, for example on the four noble truths, the aggregates, dhatus, and so forth, which, insofar as they do not express the ultimate truth, are of provisional validity only. They are nevenheless indispens- able in that their purpose is to lead unrealized beings gradually along the path, bringing them to greater understanding and final accomplishment. EXPOSITORY VEHICLE OF CAUSALITY, rg)'u mtshan nyia kyi theg pa. The paths of the Shravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and Bodhisattvas. The expository vehicle is so called because (I) it expounds the path that leads to the attainment of the goal and (2) the practitioners of this vehicle work only with the causes that bring fonh-in a direct sense-the result of their panicular path (e.g., arhatship in the case of Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas) and, indirectly, the final result of buddhahood. In contrast with the expository vehicle of causality, one speaks also of the resultant vehicle. This is so called because here the result of the path (namely, the empty and luminous nature of the mind) is utilized and practiced as the path. The resultant vehicle is another name for the Vajrayana. FIELD OF BENEFITS, phan 'aogs pa'i gzhi. Beings, such as one's parents, to whom a great debt of gratitude is owed for the kindness they have shown. The field of benefits also includes beings who are natural objects of compassion, such as the sick, the old, and the unprotected. All actions directed to them will bring fonh a powerful result. FIELD OF EXALTED QUALITIES, )'on tan gyi gzhi. The Three Jewels, spiritual masters, abbots, and so forth, who possess extraordinary spiritual qualities of elimina- tion and realization and in respect of whom actions bring fonh powerful karmic effects. 502 GLOSSARY
FIELD OF MERIT, tshogs zhing. A technical term referring to the Three Jewels, the guru, and so forth, considered as proper objects of reverence and offering, whereby the vast accumulation of merit is generated.
FIVE BODIES, sku lnga, Skt. kaya. According to the teachings of the Mahayana, the transcendent reality of perfect buddhahood is described in terms of two, three, four, or five bodies, or kayas. The two bodies, in the first case, are the Dharma- kaya, the Body of Truth, and the Rupakaya, the Body of Form. The Dharma- kaya is the absolute or "emptiness" aspect of buddhahood. The Rupakaya is subdivided (thus giving rise to the three bodies mentioned above) into the Sambhogakaya, the Body of Perfect Enjoyment, and the Nirmanakaya, the Body of Manifestation. The Sambhogakaya, or the spontaneous clarity aspect of buddhahood, is perceptible only to beings of extremely high realization. The N irmanakaya, the compassionate aspect, is perceptible to ordinary beings and appears in the world most often, though not necessarily, in human form. The system of four bodies consists of the three just referred to together with the Svabhavikakaya, or Body of Suchness, which refers to the union of the previous three. Occasionally there is mention of five bodies: the three kayas together with the immutable Diamond or Vajra Body (the indestructible aspect of buddhahood) and the Body of Complete Enlightenment (representing the aspect of enlightened qualities). FIVE CERTAINTIES, ngts pa lnga. Stt Five excellences. FIVE-ELEMENT STRUCTURE, chings chtn po lnga. In his YJ'akh)'a)'ukti, Vasubandhu describes a five-element structure around which treatises are to be composed. This comprises the purpose of the treatise (dgos pa), the correct arrangement of its parts (mtshams sbyor), the explanation itself (tshig don), its overall meaning (bsdus don), and responses to possible objections ('gallan). FIVE ELEMENTS, 'h)'ung ba lnga. Earth, water, fire, and wind or air, as principles of solidity, liquidity, heat and movement, and ether or space. FIVE EXCELLENCES, phun sum tshogs pa lnga. The five perfections of place, teacher, retinue, time, and teaching. According to the Shravakayana, this refers to the Buddha Shakyamuni and the various moments and geographical locations in which he expounded the Dharma to his disciples. According to the Mahayana, this refers to the Sambhogakaya Buddhas such as Vairochana, expounding the teachings of the Great Vehicle in various buddhafields, in the eternal present beyond time, to a vast retinue of Bodhisattvas residing on the tenth ground. In the latter case, the five excellences are also called the "five certainties" (ngts pa lnga). FIVE IMPORTANT HEADINGS, rtsis mgo yan lag lnga. A method of textual analysis adopted by the panditas of Nalanda and used by Tibetan scholars. It consists of a sequence of five topics: the author of the treatise (mdzad pa po), its scriptural GLOSSARY 503
source (lung gang nas btus), its general philosophical tendency (ph)'ogs gang au gtogs), its condensed meaning (bsaus aon), and its purpose (agos (httl).
FIVE LINEAGES, rigs lnga. The five lineages of Tathagata, vajra, jewel, lotus, and action, representing five aspects of buddhahood. Each of them is presided over by a Dhyani Buddha: Vairochana, Akshobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha, and Amoghasiddhi, respectively. FIVE PATHS, lam lnga. Skt. panchamarga. Sit Path. FIVE SCIENCES, rig pa'i gnas lnga. The five disciplines of which a Buddhist master must have mastery. They are medicine, philology, logic, philosophy, and "arts and crafts." FIVE SINS OF IMMEDIATE EFFECT, mtshams mta lnga. These are: to kill one's father, to kill one's mother, to kill an Arhat, to attack and injure a Buddha so as to draw blood, and to cause a schism in the Sangha. These actions are of immedi- ate effect because they are so grave that their strength overrides any other karma and at death the person concerned falls directly into hell without even passing through the bardo state. FIVE SKANDHAS. Stt Skandhas. FIVE WISDOMS, yt shts lnga. The five wisdoms of buddhahood corresponding to the five Dhyani Buddhas or five Buddha families: mirrorlike wisdom (mt long lta bu )'t shes, Vajrasattva: vajra family), wisdom of equality (mnyam n)'ia )'e shts, Ratnasambhava: the jewel family), all-discerning wisdom (so sor rtog pa'i )'t shts, Amitabha: the lotus family), all-accomplishing wisdom (bJ'a ba sgrub pa'i )'t shes, Amoghasiddhi: the action family), and wisdom of dharmadhatu ((hos abJ'ings )'e shts, Vairochana: the Tathagata family). FORM REALM, gzugs khams. The second of the three worlds of existence. It is divided into four levels of samadhi which, all together, are again subdivided into seventeen spheres. These are the heavens of: (I) the Pure (tshangs ris); (2) Priests of Brahma (tshangs pa'i maun na 'aon); (3) Great Pure Ones (tshangs (htn); (4) Dim Light ('oa (hung); (5) Measureless Light (tshaa mea 'oa); (6) Clear Light ('oa gsal); (7) Lesser Virtue (agt (hung); (8) Limitless Virtue (tshaa mta agt), (9) Flourishing Virtue (age rg),as); (10) Cloudless (sprin mta); (II) Merit-Born (bsoa nams sk)'es); (12) Great Fruit (,bras bu (he); (13) Not Greater (mi (he ba); (14) Without Distress (migaung ba); (15) Manifest Richness (g)'a nom snang ba); (16) Good Vision (shin tu mthong ba); (17) Akanishta (the Unsurpassed, '01. min). This realm is characterized by the absence of gross afflictive emotions. Beings in the form realm remain in blissful states of meditative concentration. FORMLESS REALM, gzugs mta khams. The four highest states of samsaric existence. They correspond to the four formless absorptions, that is, the four meditative absorptions devoid of attributes. They are called: (I) Infinite Space (nam mkha' mtha'yas) (2) Infinite Consciousness (rnam shts mtha')'as); (3) Utter Nothingness 504 GLOSSARY
(d yang mtd pa); and (4) Neither Existence nor Nonexistence ()rod min mtd min). They are devoid of location and are characterized by the absence of perception.
FOUR BOUNDLESS ATTITUDES, tshad mtd bzhi. Four highly virtuous states of mind, regarded as immeasurable because they focus on all beings without exception and are productive of boundless merits. They are: love, compassion, sympa- thetic joy, and impartiality. F OUR CASTES, rigs bzhi. The traditional class distinctions of Indian society associ- ated with different psychological types and the kind of work or social function deemed appropriate to them. Over the centuries the caste system developed and is now extremely complex. Buddhist texts refer only to the original four- fold system and repudiate it in the sense of rejecting the idea, still current in Indian society, that such distinctions are immutable and are dictated by the circumstances of birth. The four types or classes are the royal or ruling class (kshatriJra, rg)ral rigs), the priestly class (brahmin, bram Zt rigs), the merchant class (vaish)'a, rjt 'u rigs), and the menial class (shudra, dmangs rigs). FOUR CLASSES OF TANTRA, rg)'ud bzhi. Stt Tantra. FOUR CLOSE MINDFULNESSES, dran pa nytr bzhag bzhi. Mindfulness of the body, feelings, consciousness, and mental objects, as practiced (with respectively dif- ferent objects of focus and attitude) in both the Hinayana and the Mahayana. FOUR CONTINENTS, gling bzhi. The four continents located in the four directions around Mount Meru, constituting a universal system. They are: the semicircu- lar Ius 'phags po, Skt. Videha, in the east; the trapezoidal 'dzam bu gling, Skt. Jambudvipa, in the south; the circular ba lang spyod, Skt. Godaniya, in the west; and the square sgra mi snyan, Skt. Uttarakuru, in the nonh. Respectively, the names of the continents mean: Sublime Body, Land of Rose Apples, Bountiful Cow, and Unpleasant Sound. Each of the four main cosmic continents is accompanied by two subcontinents of the same shape. Human beings inhabit these continents with the exception of Chamara (rnga yab), which is populated by rakshasas, a kind of flesh-eating demon. FOUR DEMONS, bdud bzhi. Stt Demon. FOUR FORMLESS ABSORPTIONS, sn)'oms Jug bzhi. Stt Formless realm. FOUR GENUINE RESTRAINTS, yang dag par spong ba bzhi. These are: (I) the preemptive halting of negativities not yet generated; (2) the rejection of negativities already arisen; (3) the solicitation of positive states not yet present; and (4) the protec- tion from decline of positive states already generated. FOUR GREAT KINGS, rg)'al chtn rigs bzhi. These are the gods who are traditionally considered to be the protectors of the four directions. Their realm is the lowest divine sphere of the desire realm situated on the four terraces or "steps" of Mount Meru. GLOSSARY 505
FOUR KAYAS. Stt Five Bodies.
FOUR RELIANCES, rton pa bzhi. These are: (I) reliance not on the person of the teacher but on the teaching; (2) reliance not on the mere words of the teaching but on its intended meaning; (3) reliance not on the expedient but on the definitive meaning; and (4) reliance not on intellectual understanding but on nonconceptual wisdom that sees the absolute truth directly. FOUR SAMADHIS, bsamgtan bzhi. Four levels of the form realm. Stt Form realm. FOUR TRUTHS, bdtn pa bzhi. The truths of suffering, origin, cessation, and path expounded by the Buddha Shakyamuni in his first teaching following his en- lightenment. These teachings, referred to as the first turning of the Dharma wheel, are the foundation o f the Hinayana and Mahayana teachings. FOUR WAYS OF ATTRACTING DISCIPLES, bsdu ba'i dngos po bzhi. Teachers gather disciples by (I) their generosity; (2) the fact that their teachings are attuned to the minds of their disciples; (3) their ability to introduce disciples to the prac- tice leading to liberation; and (4) the fact that they themselves practice what they preach. GANACHAKRA FEAST, or SACRED FEAST, tshogs. A ritual offering in tantric Bud- dhism in which oblations of food and drink are blessed as the elixir of wisdom and offered to the yidam deity as well as to the mandala of one's own body. GANDHARVA, Skt., dri za. Lit. smell eater. A member of a class of nonhuman beings, said to be nourished on smells and closely associated with music. GARUDA, kh)Iung. A kind of bird, in both Indian and Tibetan tradition. A creature ofgreat size, it hatches already fledged and is able to fly at once. It is therefore used as a symbol of primordial wisdom. G ELUGPA, dgt lugs pa. One of the New Translation schools, founded by Je Tsong- khapa (1357-1419), whose head is the Throne-Holder of Ganden and whose most illustrious member is His Holiness the Dalai Lama. GENERATION AND PERFECTION. The two principal phases of tantric practice. The generation stage (bsk)Itd rim), also referred to as creation stage or develop- ment stage, involves meditation on appearances, sounds, and thoughts as dei- ties, mantras, and wisdom, respectively. The perfection stage (rdzogs rim), also referred to as completion stage, refers to the dissolution of visualized forms into emptiness and the experience of this. It also indicates the meditation on the subtle channels, energies, and essential substances of the body. GODANIY A, ba u,ng SJ'J'od. Stt Four continents. GODS, lha, Skt. deva. According to the Buddhist tradition, a class of beings, supe- rior to humans, who, although not immortal, enjoy immense power, bliss, and longevity. The Tibetan and Sanskrit terms are also used to refer to powerful spirits as well as to the deities visualized in tantric meditation, which are not 506 GLOSSARY
to be understood as "gods" in the ordinary sense of the word. Occasionally, the term is also used in a technical sense to refer to the Buddha or to the guru, as well as, honorifically, to great and powerful kings. The Tibetan usage reflects that of the Sanskrit term, which is rich and elusive in meaning. Originally it seems to have meant "bright" and, later, the "bright ones who give to man." Accordingly, the range of meaning is wide and covers the sun and moon as universal luminaries, human parents who give life and sustenance, and thence to the learned and to spiritual guides who impan knowledge.
GREAT CHARIOT, shing rta chen po. Name of Gyalwa Longchenpa's autocommentary to the MinJ at Rest (sems n),iJ ngalgso), one of the three treatises of the Trilog)' oj Rest(ngalgsoskorgsum), a description ofthe entire path, up to and including the Great Perfection, which is expounded according to the scholarly method ("the great way of the panditas") and according to the experiential method of pith instruction ("the profound way of the yogis"). GREAT FRUIT, 'bras bu chen po. The twelfth level of the form realm corresponding to the highest, but still mundane (i.e., not beyond samsara), level of the founh samadhi. GREAT MADHYAMIKA, Jbu ma chen po. In the Nyingma and Kagyu traditions, the name given to the fusion of the teachings of the second and third turnings of the Dharma wheel. These two turnings are paralleled, respectively, by the ap- proach of N agarjuna, the view that ultimate reality is beyond conceptual for- mulation, and the approach of Asanga, the view that ultimate reality is the buddha nature, the tathagatagarbha, free from all defects and primordially en- dowed with all enlightened qualities. The Great Madhyamika is also referred to as the Yogachara Madhyamika, for it stresses the role of meditation in the realization of ultimate reality, the nature of the mind. Associated with this system is the expression gzhan stong, "emptiness of other," referring to the under- standing that ultimate reality is an emptiness which is a freedom from all factors extraneous to itself. In other words, it is a positive value and not a mere negatlon. GREAT PERFECTION, rJzogs pa chen po, Skt. mahasandhi. The ultimate view of the Nyingma school: the union of primordial purity (ka Jag) and spontaneous presence (/hun grub), in other words, of voidness and awareness. Set also Ati, Atiyoga. GREAT VEHICLE, theg pa chen po, Skt. Mahayana. Set Mahayana. GROUND, sa, Skt. bhumi. Ground or level. In the Mahayana, the ten grounds of bodhisattva realization (so described from the point of view of post-meditation experience only) extend from the path of seeing through the path of meditation and culminate in the attainment of the path of no more learning, which is buddhahood. The first seven grounds are termed impure, because the defiled emotional consciousness (which, turning toward the alaya, is what constantly G LOSSAR Y 507
conceives of "I") is still present in the mind of the yogi, and, even though not active, this results in the perception of a distinction between the observing mind and the object observed (gn),;s snang). On the eighth ground, this defiled consciousness is removed, with the result that the strongest manifestations of this dualistic appearance are dissipated. On the ninth and tenth grounds, even the most subtle traces of this gradually cease. According to the Hinayana, there are eight grounds of realization. According to the Vajrayana, there are thirteen grounds or more.
GROUND OF UTTER JOY. SttPerfect Joy. GROUND, PATH, AND FRUIT, gzh; lam 'bras bu. Each Buddhist tenet system asserts its own approach to reality in terms of ground, path, and fruit. Generally speaking, the ground refers to a specific view of reality, the path comprises the meditation performed within the framework of that view, and the fruit is the final result of the practice. GUHYAGARBHA, gsang ba'; sn),;ng po. The chief Mahayoga tantra of the Nyingma school. GUN APRABHA, )'on tan 'od. A disciple o f V asubandhu and master and exponent o f both the Hinayana and Mahayana teachings. He is celebrated as the great authority on the Vinaya and composed the famous V;naya-sutra. GURU YOGA, Skt., bla rna'; rnal .>'or. A practice consisting of the visualization of the guru (in whichever form), prayers and requests for blessing, the visualized reception of these blessings, and the merging of the mind in the guru's enlight- ened wisdom mind. Guru yoga is the single most important practice of tantric Buddhism. GYURME DORJE, g,'ur mtd rdo rjt, name of Minling Terdag Lingpa (1646-1714). A celebrated tertOn and founder of the Mindroling monastery in central Tibet. He collected the tantras of the long oral lineage of the Nyingma school and all the earlier terma teachings. He was thus instrumental in the preservation of the Nyingma tradition. H ARIBHADRA, stng gt bzang po, a disciple of Shantarakshita and Vairotsana in the late eighth century. He was an exponent of the Yogachara Svatantrika Madhya- mika school. He did much to propagate the teachings of the Prajnaparamita and is well known for his commentary on the same sutra. He was the preceptor o f the Buddhist king Dharmapala and was closely associated with the monastic university of Vikramashila. HEAVEN OF THE PURE, tshangs r;s. The first level of the first samadhi of the form realm. H ERUKA, Skt. A term used to refer to any meditational deity, a symbol of the ultimate nature of the mind. 508 GLOSSARY
H INAYANA, theg aman. The fundamental system of Buddhist thought and practice deriving from the first turning of the wheel of Dharma and centering around the teachings on the four noble truths and the twelvefold chain of dependent arising. In situations where it might be understood in a pejorative sense, Hina- yana (small or low vehicle) is often avoided in favor of Shravakayana (the vehicle of the Shravakas or Hearers). It should in any case be noted that in Tibetan Buddhism, the Hinayana is regarded as an intrinsic part, indeed the foundation, of the teachings and is not disparaged, even though the narrowly Hhinayana motivation," of aiming solely for one's own liberation (as contrasted with the universal attitude o f bodhichitta), is considered incomplete and insuf- ficient. Altogether there were eighteen hinayana schools, of which only one, the Theravada, still exists today, existing mainly in the countries of south Asia.
H OLDER OF THE VAJRA, rao rje 'azin pa. A title given to the holder of the three kinds of discipline or vow. IGNORANCE, ma rig pa, Skt. avidya. In a Buddhist context, ignorance is not mere nescience but mistaken apprehension. It is the incorrect understanding of, or failure to recognize, the ultimate nature of the person and phenomena, and falsely ascribing true existence to them. I NDIVIDU AL LIBERATION, so sor thar pa, Skt. pratimoksha. See Pratimoksha. INDRA, Skt., abang po. Also known as Shakra (brg)'a byin), the supreme god and king of the heaven of the Thirty-three, which is located in the desire realm. Indra is regarded as a protector of the Buddhist doctrine. I NFINITE PURITY, aag pa rab 'b)lams. A technical term referring to the tantric realiza- tion that appearances, sounds, and thoughts are the mandala of the deities, mantras, and primordial wisdom. J AMBUDVIPA, Skt., 'azam bu gling, lit. the land of rose-apples. The southern conti- nent of the four situated around Mount Meru. Jambudvipa is the human world in which we live. JETSUN MILA (1040-1123). The famous disciple of Marpa the Translator. One of Tibet's most revered yogis and poets, who attained buddhahood in the course of a single life. J NANAGARBHA, ye shes m)'ing po. A m a s t e r o f N a l a n d a U n i v e r s i t y a n d t h e o r d a i n i n g abbot of Shantarakshita. He was an exponent of the "upper school" of Svatan- trika Madhyamika and the author of the celebrated Two Truths of the Miaale Way. KAGYUPA, bka' brg)'ua pa. One of the New Translation schools, founded by Marpa the Translator (1012-1099). This school is divided into many subschools, the most well known nowadays being the Karma (or Dhakpo) Kagyu, Drikung Kagyu, Drukpa Kagyu, and Shangpa Kagyu. KALACHAKRA, Jus kyi 'khor 10, lit. wheel of time. One of the main tantras practiced by the New Translation schools of Tibetan Buddhism. It is celebrated for the GLOSSARY 509
unique cosmological system that it expounds and is closely associated with the hidden realm of Shambhala, the king of which was the first to receive this teaching from the Buddha.
KALPA, bskal pa. A great kalpa is the time period corresponding to a cycle of formation, duration, destruction, and vacuity of a universe (each of these four phases comprising twenty intermediate kalpas). There is also a so-called mea- sureless kalpa (grangs mta bskal pa), which, despite its name, does not refer to an infinite lapse of time but to a specific period defined in the Abhidharma as consisting of ten kalpas. The present (great) kalpa is usually referred to as the Good or Fortunate Kalpa on account of the fact that a thousand universal Buddhas will appear in the course of it. The Buddha Shakyamuni is the fourth in the series. KAMALASHILA, (713-763). The principal disciple of Shantarakshita and an expo- nent with him of the Yogachara Madhyamika school. He was invited to Tibet, where he successfully debated with the Chinese master Hashang Mahayana, thereby definitively establishing the gradual approach of the Indian tradition as normative for Tibetan Buddhism. KARMA, Skt., las. Action, the psychophysical principle of cause and effect accord- ing to which all experiences are the result of previous actions, and all actions are the seeds of future existential situations. Actions resulting in the experience of happiness are defined as vinuous; actions which give rise to suffering are described as nonvinuous. KATYAYANA. An Indian Arhat, a direct disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni. KA YA, Skt., sku. Stt Five Bodies. KINNARA, Skt., mi 'am ci. A mythical creature half-man and half-animal. KRISHNAPA, nag po pa. An Indian master and teacher of Atisha (fl. c. eleventh century). LAMA, bla mao Tibetan term for a highly realized spiritual teacher, the equivalent of the Sanskrit word guru. In colloquial language, however, it is sometimes used as a polite way of addressing a monk. LANGDARMA. Brother of the religious king Ralpachen. When the latter was mur- dered by his Bonpo ministers in the year 906, Langdarma became king. He persecuted Buddhism and almost succeeded in eradicating it, especially in its monastic form, from Tibet. After six years of rule he was assassinated by a Buddhist yogi. LEAGUE, apag tshaa, Skt. yojana. An ancient Indian measurement of distance which according to the Abhidharmakosha corresponds to 4.5 miles or 7.4 kilometers. 510 GLOSSARY
LEVELS OF EXISTENCE, THREE, sa gsum. Stt Three dimensions of existence. LILAVAJRA. Name of a master who transmitted the Mahayoga tantras to Buddha-
guhya and Vimalamitra. LONGCHENPA, klong chtn rab 't,'ams. Kunkhyen Longchen Rabjam (1308-1363), re- garded as the greatest genius of the Nyingma tradition, an incomparable master and author of over two hundred and fifty treatises. He brought together the two main transmissions of Atiyoga, or Dzogchen: the Khandro Nyingthik of Guru Rinpoche and the Virna Nyingthik descended from Vimalamitra. Longchenpa's wide-ranging commentaries cover the whole field of sutra and mantra, in panicular the teachings of Dzogchen, or the Great Perfection, but also such topics as history and literature. Many of his writings are considered to be authentic Mind Termas. O f these the most important are the Four Stctions oj Htart Esstnet teachings (snying thig )'a bzhi), the Stvtn Trtasurts (mJzoJ bJun), and the MinJ at Rtst trilogy (SimS n),id ngal gso). For more details, see Longchen Rabjam, Tht Practiet oj Dzogchtn. LOWER REALMS, ngan song. The hells, the realms of pretas and animals. LUMINOSITY, 'oJ gsaL The clarity or knowing aspect of the mind. Luminosity means practically the same thing as primordial wisdom. MADHYAMIKA, Skt., Jbu ma'i lam. The Middle Way philosophy of shunyata, or emptiness, which avoids the extreme ontological positions of existence and nonexistence. It was first propounded by the Indian master Nagarjuna in the latter half of the second century C.E. and is still upheld in Tibetan Buddhism as the supreme philosophical view. MAHAYANA, thtgpa chtn po. The Great Vehicle, the tradition of Buddhism practiced mostly in the countries of northern Asia: China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Tibet, and the Himalayan regions. The characteristic of Mahayana is the pro- found view of the emptiness of the ego and of all phenomena, coupled with universal compassion and the desire to deliver all beings from suffering and its causes. To this purpose, the goal of the Mahayana is the attainment of the supreme enlightenment of buddhahood, and the path consists of the practice of the six paramitas. On the philosophical level, the Mahayana comprises two principal schools, Madhyamika and Chittamatra or Yogachara. The Vajrayana is a branch of the Mahayana. MAIN MIND, gtso Stms. A technical term in Buddhist epistemology, referring to the consciousness that generally detects the presence of an object, whereas the different types of mental factors (SimS byung) apprehend, and react to, particular aspects of that object. M AITREYA, t,'ams pa. The "Loving One," one of the eight Close Sons of the Buddha and a tenth-ground Bodhisattva. He resides in the Tushita heaven as GLOSSARY 511
the Buddha's regent and will appear on earth as the next Buddha of this Fortu- nate Kalpa. Stt also Asanga.
MAJOR AND MINOR MARKS OF A BUDDHA, mtshan aang apt bJraa. Thirty-two major physical marks (e.g., the ushn;sha, or crown protuberance) and eighty minor characteristics (e.g., copper-colored fingernails) that are typical of a Buddha as signs of his realization. MANDALA, Skt., ak),;l 'khor. This word has several levels of meaning. At its most basic level, it may be understood simply as a configuration or intelligible unit of space. The mandala of the deity, for example, is the sacred area or palace of the wisdom deity. The mandala of a lama might be considered as the lama's place of residence and the retinue of disciples. The offering mandala is the entire arrangement of an offering, either in real terms or in the imagination, as when a practitioner offers the entire universe. MANJUSHRI, Jam apal abJ,angs. A tenth-ground Bodhisattva, one of the eight Close Sons of the Buddha. He is the personification of the body aspect and the wisdom of all the Buddhas. Stt also Asanga; Nagarjuna. MANTRA, Skt., sngags. Syllables or formulas which, when recited with appropriate visualizations and so on, protect the mind of the practitioner from ordinary perceptions. They are invocations of, and manifestations of, the yidam deity in the form of sound. MANTRAYANA, gsang sngags. Stt Vajrayana. MARA, baua. Stt Demon. MASTER OF ORGYEN. Stt Padmasambhava. MASTERY OVER MAGICAL CREATIONS OF OTHERS, gzhan 'phrul abang byta, Skt. Paranirmita vashavarttina. The sixth and highest heaven of the desire realm, where gods have power over the enjoyments that other gods have created. MAUDGALYAPUTRA. One of the two most important disciples of the Buddha Shakyamuni belonging to the Shravaka Sangha (the other being Shariputra). Maudgalyaputra was endowed with many magical powers. In traditional repre- sentations of Buddha Shakyamuni, he and Shariputra are often depicted stand- ing to right and left of the Master. M ENTAL FACTORS, sems byung. Set Main mind. M ENTAL IMAGE, aon spy';, lit. "meaning-generality." The conceptual image experi- enced by the mental consciousness (rtog shts) and resulting from the activity of the senses. The mental image is the means whereby objects are recognized and conceptually known, a process which is necessarily indirect in the sense that the mental image is not identical with, but only representative of, the thing in question. This representation of the object is of the most general kind and 512 GLOSSARY
functions negatively in being an elimination or exclusion of all that is not the object.
MERIT, bsod nams. Positive energy arising from wholesome action or virtue (dgt ba). There are two kinds of merit: (I) mere "merit tending to happiness" (bsod nams tsam po pa or bsod nams cha mthun) and (2) "merit tending to liberation" (thar pa cha mthun), on the basis of which the mind progresses toward emancipation from samsara. "Stainless merit" (zag mtd dgt ba) is merit tending to liberation, accumulated on the five paths. 5tt also Vinue tending to happiness; Vinue tending to liberation. METHOD, thabs, Skt. upaya. 5tt Skillful means. MIPHAM RINPOCHE, Jam db)'ang rnam rgyal rgya mtsho (1846-1912). One of the greatest scholars of the Nyingma tradition, famed for his immense erudition and versatility. He was a close disciple ofJamyang Khyentse Wangpo and thus associated with the Rime, or nonsectarian movement. Through his learning and realization, he greatly contributed to the reinvigoration o f study and practice in nineteenth-century Tibet. MOUNT MERU, ri rab. The name of an immense cosmic mountain, acting as the axis of the universe and around which are located the four continents. Every universal system has its Mount Meru and four continents. MUDRA, ph)'ag rg)'a. A term with several levels of meaning. Basically, it means a ritual gesture performed with the hands. N AGA, Skt., klu. A powerful creature figuring in the Buddhist and Hindu world- view, closely associated with snakes and endowed with intelligence, magical powers, and great wealth. Nagas are said to live beneath the eanh and to inhabit the watery element; in traditional medicine, they are linked with certain diseases, especially those of the skin. N AGABODHI, klu'i b)'ang chub. A disciple of Nagarjuna, famed for his devotion. N AGARJUNA, klu grub. Great second-century master of the Mahayana, responsible for the dissemination of the Prajnaparamita sutras, which he is said to have recovered from the land of the nagas, where they had been concealed. He was the founder of the Madhyamika system of thought closely associated with the Bodhisattva Manjushri. The Madhyamika teachings of the Profound View are still regarded in Tibetan Buddhism as the summit of all philosophical systems. Stt also Asanga. N ALANDA. The famous monastic university built at the birthplace of Shariputra some distance nonh of Bodhgaya in Bihar and near Rajgir or Vulture Peak where Shakyamuni Buddha expounded the sutras of the Prajnaparamita. The place where many of the greatest masters of the Mahayana lived, studied, and taught, Nalanda had a long and illustrious history. GLOSSARY 513
NATURAL DISCIPLINE, rang bzhin g)'i tshul khrims. Spontaneous discipline arisIng from a total freedom from attachment. The vow of discipline is possible only against the background of desire (the basic expression of which is ego-cling- ing), for it is the principal antidote to it. Yogis who are free from desire (and who therefore have no need to take such a vow) possess a discipline that is entirely natural to them. This is also said to be the case for the inhabitants of Uttarakuru, the northern continent.
NEIGHBORING HELLS, nye 'khor g)'i dmyal ba. Sixteen hells, four in each direction, where suffering is slightly less than in the hot hells around which they are situated. NIHILISM, chad par Ita ba. The extreme materialist view of considering the experi- ences of the physical senses as the only reality and which therefore denies the existence of past and future lives, the karmic principle of cause and effect, and so on. N IN E VEHICLES, theg pa dgu. The traditional classification of the Dharma according to the Nyingma school. The first three are known as the three causal vehicles of the Shravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and Bodhisattvas. Following these are the three vehicles of the outer tantras, namely, Kriyayoga, Upayoga, and Yogatan- tra. Finally there are the three vehicles of the inner tantras: Mahayoga, Anu- yoga, and Atiyoga. N IRVANA, Skt., m)'ang ngan 'das, lit. the state beyond suffering. As a blanket term, this indicates the various levels of enlightenment attainable in both the Shrava- kayana and Mahayana, namely, the enlightenment of the Shravakas, Pratyeka- buddhas, and Buddhas. It should be noted, however, that when nirvana, or enlightenment, is understood simply as emancipation from samsara (the goal, in other words, of the Hinayana), it is not to be understood as buddhahood. As expounded in the Mahayana, buddhahood utterly transcends both the suf- fering of samsara and the peace of nirvana. Buddhahood is therefore referred to as "nonabiding nirvana" (mi gnas m)'ang 'das), in other words, a state that abides neither in the extreme of samsara nor in that of peace. N ON AFFIRMING NEGATIVE, med dgag. Set Affirming negative. NONANALYTICAL CESSATION or ABSENCE, brtags min gog pa. Refers to the absence of a phenomenon because the conditions for its presence, or perception, are not operative, whether entirely or in pan. This includes, for example, all that is not detected by the senses through being outside the range of the sense organs, or anything else that does not appear due to other disqualifying factors, like the absence of horns on a horse's head which are lacking due to the horse's genetic makeup. A nonanalytical cessation is therefore the absence of a certain object in a specific location. N ONCONCEPTUAL WISDOM, mi rtog pa'iye shes, lit. thought-free wisdom. Primordial knowledge divested of all discursive activity. 514 GLOSSARY
N ONRETURNER, ph)'ir mi 'ong ba. The Shravaka level of realization, the attainment of which implies no funher rebinh in the desire realm. This is not to be confused with the Mahayana level of Nonreturner, which indicates that the Bodhisattva in question will not return to the samsaric state of mind, even though he or she will continue to manifest in the world in order to assist others.
NO-SELF, baag mta. The absence of inherent existence either of the person or of phenomena. N YINGMA SCHOOL, rnying mao Ste Ancient Translation school. OBSCURATIONS, sgrib pa, Skt. avarana. Mental factors which veil the nature of the mind. Stt Two obscurations. ODDIYANA, Skt., 0 rgyan. Also called Orgyen or Urgyen, a region in ancient India corresponding, according to some authorities, to the valley of Swat between Afghanistan and Kashmir. Oddiyana was the birthplace of Guru Padmasam- bhava and Garab Dorje, the first human master of the Dzogchen tradition. ONCE RETURNER, Ian gcig ph)'ir 'ong ba. The Shravaka level of attainment, so called because it implies that one more birth in the desire realm is necessary before liberation is attained. P ADMASAMBHA V A, paa ma 'h)'ung gnas, lit. lotus-born. Referred to by many other titles such as the Master of Orgyen and Guru Rinpoche, Padmasambhava was predicted by the Buddha Shakyamuni as the one who would propagate the teachings of the Vajrayana. Invited to Tibet by King Trisong Detsen in the eighth century, he succeeded in definitively establishing there the Buddhist teachings of sutra and tantra. P ARAMITA, pha rol tu ph)'in pa. A transcendent perfection or virtue, the practice of which leads to buddhahood and which therefore forms the practice of Bodhi- sattvas. There are six paramitas: generosity, ethical discipline, patience, dili- gence, concentration, and wisdom. According to another reckoning there are ten paramitas, these six with the addition of a funher four, regarded as aspects of the wisdom paramita. They are: skillful means, strength, aspiration, and primordial wisdom. PATH, lam, Skt. marga. Progress toward enlightenment is described, in both the Mahayana and H inayana, in terms of the five paths of accumulation, joining, seeing, meditation, and no more learning. The first four constitute the path of learning (slob pa'i lam); the fifth one, the path of no more learning (mi slob pa'i lam), is buddhahood. The paths of seeing and meditation are also termed IInoble path." P ATRUL RINPOCHE, Jigs mta chos kJ'i abang po (1808-1887). A highly accomplished master of the Nyingma tradition, from eastern Tibet. He was famous for his nonsectarian approach and extraordinary simplicity of life. He was a prolific GLOSSARY 515
writer and is well known in the West as the author of Tht Words ojM), PtrjtCt Ttachtr, an introduction to the practice of the Vajrayana.
PEACEFUL AND WRATHFUL DEITIES, zhi khro fha. Meditational deities in peaceful or wrathful forms figuring in the Vajrayana and representing different aspects of the buddha nature. PEAK OF EXISTENCE, sriJ rtst. The highest level in the formless realm and thus the summit of all possible states in the dimension of wordly experience. PELGYI YESHE. A great translator and one of the principal disciples of Guru Padmasambhava, from whom he received the transmission of the Matarah man- dala. PERCEPTION OF MERE APPEARANCE, gn)'is mango Despite the fact that they have realized emptiness on attaining the path of seeing, Bodhisattvas traversing the path of meditation, when not absorbed in meditative equipoise, continue to experience the percept and the perceiving mind as two separate entities. This is the residue of dualistic habit, which continues but gradually fades away, until full enlightenment is attained, even though, by vinue of their realization, the Bodhisattvas in question have long abandoned any belief in the reality of the phenomena that continue to appear to them. PERFECT JOY, rab tu dga' ba. The first of the bodhisattva grounds, corresponding to the path of seeing. PERSONAL SELF, gang zag gi bdag. Innate and conceptual apprehension of an inher- ently existent "I"; the ego. It is a mere assumption or belief in something that in fact has no existence. PHENOMENAL SELF, chos k)'i bdag. Innate and conceptual apprehension of phenom- ena as inherently existent. PITAKA, Skt., snod, lit. basket. Collection of scriptures. PRAJNAPARAMITA, Skt., shts rab kyi pha rol tu ph)'in pa. (I) The paramita oftranscen- dent wisdom, the knowledge o f emptiness; (2) the collection o f sutras belong- ing to the second turning of the Dharma wheel and expounding the doctrine of shunyata, the emptiness of phenomena. PRAKRITI, Skt., gtso boo The primal substance; one of the two great principles that account for the manifested universe according to the Hindu Samkhya philosophy. Prakriti comprises the three gunas, or universal qualities, which, when disturbed, give rise to the phenomenal appearances of the world. Stt Purusha. PRASANGIKA, Skt., thai g,'ur. Subdivision of the Madhyamika school of philoso- phy characterized by the use of prasanga, or consequence (i.e., reduction to absurdity), as the best method of dealing with false assenions in order to establish emptiness beyond the reach of conceptual construction. This particu- 516 GLOSSARY
lar approach was first explicitly formulated by Buddhapalita and later taken up and confirmed by Chandrakirti.
PRATIMOKSHA, Skt., so sor thar pa, lit. individual liberation. This term is used to refer to the eight kinds of Buddhist ordination, together with their connected vows and disciplines. These are: the vows of upavasa, or twenty-four-hour discipline; male and female upasaka (dgt bm)'tn), or lay practitioner; male and female shramanera (dgt tshul), or aspirant for a full ordination; shiksamana (dgt slob ma), or female novice; and male and female bhikshu (dgt slong), or fully ordained monks and nuns. Since these vows are specifically motivated by the determination to free oneself from samsara, they are fundamental to the Hina- yana. They are, however, widely taken and practiced in Mahayana Buddhism. The system of Pratimoksha is sometimes referred to as the "seven vows," in which case the temporary vow of upavasa is omitted. PRATYEKABUDDHA, Skt., rang sangs rgyas. A "Solitary Buddha," one who, without relying on a teacher, attains the cessation of suffering by meditating on the twelve links of dependent arising. Pratyekabuddhas realize the emptiness of the person and go halfway to realizing the emptiness of phenomena. In other words, they realize the emptiness of perceived phenomena-but not that of the subject, the perceiving mind. PRETA, Skt., yi dvags. Famished spirits, one of the six classes of beings in samsara. PRETERNATURAL KNOWLEDGE, mngon shts. A kind of clairvoyance. There are six kinds of preternatural knowledge. The first five (knowledge of the past lives, etc.) can occur even in the experience of ordinary beings. The sixth one, the knowledge of the total elimination of obscurations, is the exclusive preserve of a Buddha. PROFOUND VIEW. Stt Tradition of the Profound View. PURE LAND, zhing khams. Stt Buddhafield. PURE PERCEPTION, dag mango The perception of the world as the pure display of the kayas and wisdoms, in other words, as a buddhafield. Tending in this same direction is the contrived pure perception of a practitioner who endeavors to view everything purely, while still on the conceptual level. PURITY AND EQUALITY, dag mn)'am chm po. A central principle of the Vajrayana. It is the view of the Mahayoga expounded in the tantra Sg)'U 'phrul dra ba (Fantas- magorical Net). All appearances, in their purity, are the mandala of the kayas and wisdoms. This comprises the superior relative truth. Being pure, they are all equal, wisdom and emptiness united. This is superior absolute truth. The "pure" status of the appearing mode and the "equal" status of the absolute mode of being are present indivisibly in every phenomenon. This is referred to as the great Dharmakaya. GLOSSARY 517
PURUSHA, Skt., shts rig gi sk),tS bu. According to the Hindu Samkhya philosophy, the conscious Self, real and eternal, the counterpart of prakriti, the primal substance. Stt also Prakriti.
QUALITIES OF ELIMINATION AND REALIZATION, spangs rtogs kyi )'on tan. Spiritual qualities (e.g., the realization of the five kinds of enlightened vision) that shine fonh in proponion as the emotional and cognitive veils are removed from the mind's nature. RADIANT CLARITY, 'od gsaL Stt Luminosity. RAHU, sgra gcan. A mythical demon believed to cause eclipses by devouring the sun and moon. REFUGE, sk;'abs ),ul. The object in which one takes refuge; sk;'abs gro, the practice of taking refuge. REFUGE TREE. The field of refuge, the Three Jewels, and so forth, visualized as seated in the center and on the four great branches of a tree, for the purposes of taking refuge. Stt also Field of merit. RELATIVE TRUTH, kun rdzob bdtn pa, lit. all-concealing truth. This refers to phe- nomena in the ordinary sense, which, on the level of ordinary experience, are perceived as real and separate from the mind and which thus conceal their true nature. R ESULTANT VEHICLE, 'bras bu'i thtg pa. Stt Expository vehicle of causality. RINCHEN ZANGPO, rin chtn bzang po. A great translator (958-1051) and inaugurator of the second phase of translation of Sanskrit texts into Tibetan, so-called the New Translation period. RISHI, Skt., drang srong. Name given to the great sages of Indian mythology, en- dowed with great longevity and magical powers, who were instrumental in the creation, or reception, of the Vedas. In the Buddhist context, this word is usually translated as sage, hermit, or saint. RONGZOM CHOKYI ZANGPO, rong zom chos k)'i bzang po. Also known as Rongzom Pandita, an eleventh-century scholar and commentator of the Nyingma school. R UP AKA YA, Skt., gzugs sku. Stt Five Bodies. SADHANA, Skt., sgrub thabs. Method of accomplishment. A tantric meditative prac- tice involving the visualization of deities and the recitation of mantra. SAGARAMEGHA, rg)'a mtsho sprin. A master belonging to the Lower school of Sva- tantrika Madhyamika and commentator on the Bodhisattva Grounds by Asanga. S AKY AP ANDITA, kun dga' rgyal mtshan (1182-1251). Regarded as an emanation of the Bodhisattva Manjushri, one of the most illustrious masters in the history of Tibetan Buddhism. Belonging to the Sakya school, he was a great polymath 518 GLOSSARY
and Sanskritist. His work on the three types of vow, Tht Thrtt Vows D;st;ngu;shta, was and is extremely influential.
SAMADHI, Skt., bsam gtan. Meditative absorption o f different degrees. SAMANTABHADRA, kun tu bzang po. (I) Bodhisattva Samantabhadra, one o f the eight Close Sons of the Buddha, renowned for his offerings emanated through the power of his concentration; (2) the primordial Buddha who has never fallen into delusion, the symbol of awareness, the ever-present pure and luminous nature of the mind. SAMAVA, Skt., aam tshig. The sacramental bond and commitment in the Vajrayana established between the master and the disciples on whom empowerment is conferred. The samaya bond exists also between the disciples of the same master and between disciples and their practice. SAMBHOGAKA YA, Skt., longs spyoa razogs pa'; sku. Stt Five Bodies. SAMSARA, Skt., 'khor ba. The wheel or round of existence; the state of being unenlightened in which the mind, enslaved by the three poisons of desire, anger, and ignorance, evolves uncontrolled from one state to another, passing through an endless stream of psychophysical experiences all of which are char- acterized by suffering. Stt also World of desire. SANGHA, Skt., agt 'aun. The community of Buddhist practitioners, whether monas- tic or lay. The term "Noble Sangha" refers to those members of the Buddhist community who have attained the path of seeing and beyond. SARAHA. Indian yogi of high accomplishment, author of three cycles of aohas, or songs of realization. SAUTRANTIKA, Skt., mao sat pa. One of the four systems of Buddhist tenets. To- gether with the Vaibhashika school, the Sautrantika is considered as belonging to the Hinayana. The Sautrantika is remarkable for its elaborate psychology and logic and is widely studied and utilized in Tibetan Buddhism. SECRET MANTRA, gsang sngags. Stt Vajrayana. SEVEN-BRANCH PRA YER, yan lag baun. A type of prayer (of which there are innu- merable examples) comprising the seven elements of homage and refuge, offer- ing, confession, rejoicing in the virtues of others, the request for teachings, the supplication that the enlightened beings should not pass into nirvana, and the dedication of merit. SEVEN IMPURE GROUNDS, ma aag pa' ; sa baun. Stt Ground. SEVEN-POINT POSTURE OF V AIROCHANA, rnam snang chos baun. The ideal physical posture for meditation: legs crossed in the vajra posture, back straight, hands in the gesture of meditation, eyes gazing along the line of the nose, chin slightly tucked in, shoulders well apart and even, and the tip of the tongue touching the palate. GLOSSARY 519
SEVEN SUBLIME RICHES, 'phags pa'i nor baun. Faith, discipline, generosity, learning, sense of shame, consideration of others, and wisdom.
SEVEN TREASURES, mazoa baun. The most famous work of the Omniscient Long- chenpa, consisting of seven treatises expounding the entire Buddhist path up to, and stressing, the Great Perfection (which is here discussed in a scholarly manner, "according to the great way of the panditas"). SHAKYA SHRI. A Kashmiri master, the last abbot of Vikramashila, who visited Tibet in the early thirteenth century. He was the source of the lineage of monastic ordination called the Middle Vinaya lineage (bar 'aul) of the Ngor branch of the Sakya school. SHAKYAMUNI. Historical Buddha Gautama, who attained full enlightenment be- neath the Bodhi tree in Bodhgaya, circa 500 B.C.E. SHAMATHA, Skt., zhi gnas. Essentially a concentration in which the mind remains unmoving on an object of focus. It is a state of calm abiding which though of great importance is itself incapable of overcoming ignorance and the concep- tion of a self. Stt also Vipashyana. SHANTARAKSHITA, zhi ba mtsho. Also known as Khenpo Bodhisattva. Associated with the monastic university ofNalanda, Shantarakshita was the great exponent of the upper school of the Yogachara Svatantrika Madhyamika. He visited Tibet in the eighth century at the invitation of King Trisong Detsen and ordained the first seven Tibetan monks. He was thus the source ofthe so-called smaa 'aul, the Lowland or Eastern lineage of monastic ordination followed by Nyingmapas and many Gelugpas. Among the previous Indian holders of the lineage of Shantarakshita were Shariputra, Rahula (sgra gcan 'azin, another name for Saraha), and Nagarjuna. It was at the suggestion of Shantarakshita that the king invited Guru Rinpoche to Tibet. SHANTIDEVA, zhi ba lha. A member of Nalanda university and the celebrated au- thor of the Boah;charyavatara (Tht Way' of tht Boahisattva). He upheld the view of the Prasangika Madhyamika in the tradition of Chandrakirti. Shantideva was also the author ofthe Shikshasamuccha),a, a compendium ofcitations on discipline, which forms a valuable collection of texts that have otherwise been lost. SHARIPUTRA. One of the two main Shravaka disciples of the Buddha Shakyamuni, noted for his wisdom. Stt also Maudgalyaputra. SHASTRA, Skt., bstan bcos. A commentary on the words of the Buddha. SHRAMANERA, agt tshuL The first stage in the monastic ordination implying the observance of cenain precepts. Stt note 160. SHRAVAKA, Skt., n)'an thos. One who hears the teachings of the Buddha, practices them, and transmits them to others with a view to his or her personal liberation from samsara, rather than the perfect enlightenment of buddhahood. Shravakas 520 GLOSSAR Y
are practitioners of the Root Vehicle, or Hinayana, which is often for that reason called the Shravakayana.
SHRIGUPTA, dpal sbas. A master of the lower school of the Svatantrika Madhya- mika. SHURA, SHURACHARYA, dpa' boo Set Ashvaghosha. SIDDHA, Skt., grub thob. One who has gained siddhi or accomplishment through the practice of the Vajrayana. SIDDHI, dngos grub. Set Accomplishment. SIX REALMS OF EXISTENCE, gro drug. Six modes of existence produced by specific karmas and apprehended as real. They are all equal in being merely perceptions of the deluded mind and lacking inherent existence. In ascending order they are the realms of hell, produced by hatred; pretas, brought about by extreme miserliness; of animals, provoked by stupidity; of humans, produced by desire; of asuras, by intense envy; and of gods, due to actions concomitant with pride. SKANDHAS, Skt., phung po, lit. heap or aggregate. The five skandhas are the compo- nent elements of form, feeling, perception, conditioning factors, and conscious- ness. They are the elements into which the person may be analyzed without residue. When they appear together, the illusion of self is produced in the ignorant mind. SKILLFUL MEANS, thabs, Skt. upaya. This refers to compassion, that is, the counter- part of the wisdom of emptiness. By extension, it refers to all kinds of action and training performed with the attitude of bodhichitta. STHIRAMATI, blo gros brtan pa (510-570 C.E.). A follower of Vasubandhu. It is said that he was the rebirth of a pigeon that had spent its life nesting near Vasu- bhandu's dwelling place, with the result that it heard the master's recitation of scripture so frequently that it was reborn as a human being and became one of his greatest disciples. STUPA, Skt., mchod rttn, lit. support of offering. Symbolic representation of the Buddha's enlightenment. Stupas, perhaps the most typical of Buddhist monu- ments, are to be found in a variety of forms all over the Buddhist world. They often contain the relics o f enlightened beings and are objects o f great reverence. SUBTLE CHANNELS, rtsa, Skt. nadi. The psychophysical channels located in the body, which act as the paths for the subtle wind energies that transpon the essences. There are three main channels and thousands of subsidiary ones. The system of channels, energies, and essences is the basis for yogic practice. SUGATA, Skt., bdt bar gshtgs pa, lit. "One who has gone to, and proceeds in, bliss." An epithet of the Buddhas. SUGATAGARBHA, Skt., bdt gshtgs sn)'ing po. The essence of buddhahood, the lumi- nous and empty nature of the mind. GLOSSARY 521
SUKHAVATI, Skt., bat ba can, lit. the Blissful. The name of the "Western Paradise," the pure land of the Buddha Amitabha.
SUR, BURNT OFFERING, gsur. Food burnt on coals and offered in charity to spirits who are able to consume only the smell of burnt food. SUTRA, Skt., mao. A Buddhist scripture, a transcribed discourse of the Buddha. There are Hinayana sutras and Mahayana sutras (as distinct from the tantras). Of the Mahayana sutras, some are categorized as being of expedient meaning (arang aon) and their purpose, as the Akshayamatiniratsha-sutra explains, is to lead disciples onto the path. Other Mahayana sutras are classified as being of defin- itive meaning (ngts aon) and introduce the hearers directly to the Buddha's wisdom. SUTRAYANA. Stt Mahayana. SVATANTRIKA, Skt., rang rgyua pa. "Autonomists," a subdivision of the Madhya- mika school of tenets, distinguished from the Prasangika. Inaugurated by Bha- vaviveka (fifth century C.E.), the Svatantrika represents an approach to the relative and absolute truth in which positive reasoning, or "autonomous" syllo- gisms, are employed, together with arguments and examples, in order to pro- duce a (conceptual) understanding of emptiness in the mind of the opponent and to refute the true existence of phenomena. It is distinguished from the Prasangika approach, which confines itself exclusively to consequences or re- ductio ad absurdum arguments. T ANTRA, Skt., rgyua, lit. continuum. The texts of Vajrayana Buddhism expound- ing the natural purity of the mind. The Nyingma school classifies the tantras into outer tantras (Kriya, Upa, and Yoga) and inner tantras (Mahayoga, Anu- yoga, and Atiyoga). The Sarma, or New Translation, tradition uses another method, dividing the tantras into four classes: Kriya, Upa, Yogatantra, and Anuttaratantra. T ATHAGATA, Skt., at bzhin gshtgs pa, lit. "One who has gone thus." An epithet of the Buddhas. T ATHAGATAGARBHA, at gshtgs sn)'ing po. Stt Sugatagarbha. T EN DIRECTIONS, phyogs bcu. The four cardinal and four intermediary directions, together with the zenith and nadir. T ERMA, gttr rna. Treasures. These are teachings and sacred objects concealed mainly by Guru Padmasambhava, to be revealed later, at a time when they would be more beneficial for the world and its inhabitants. Guru Rinpoche concealed such treasures in the deepest recesses of the minds of his disciples, who were themselves practitioners of great accomplishment. In addition, al- though not in every case, the bestowal of these treasure teachings was accompa- nied by the creation of certain physical objects, often scrolls of yellow paper carrying the symbolic letters of the dakinis, or other writing (sometimes a few 522 GLOSSARY
words, sometimes entire texts). These texts, together with other items, were entrusted for protection to the dakinis or Dharma protectors and were con- cealed, not in the ordinary sense, but within the very nature of the elements. According to the inconceivable workings of interdependence, when the appro- priate historical period arrives, the disciples to whom a specific teaching was bestowed appear in the world and proceed to unfold the treasure teachings. In this they are often prompted by the discovery of the items just referred to, or else they spontaneously recollect the teaching received many centuries before from the mouth of the guru. The collection of terma is enormous and forms one of the main sources of teaching and practice of the Nyingma school.
THIRTY-SEVEN ELEMENTS LEADING TO ENLIGHTENMENT, byang chub )'an lag so bdun. A system of thitty-seven factors practiced on the paths of accumulation, joining, seeing, and meditation, by means of which progress is made toward enlightenment. THIRTY-THREE, sum bcu rtsa gsum, Skt. Trayastrimsha. The second divine sphere of the desire realm, situated on the summit of Mount Meru, presided over by thitty-three gods of whom Indra is the chief. THREE COLLECTIONS, sde snod gsum. See Tripitaka. THREE DIMENSIONS OF EXISTENCE, sa gsum. The world of humans and animals inhabiting the eatth's surface, the realm of the gods and spirits in the heavens above, and the kingdom of the nagas and so on in the subterranean regions. THREE DOORS OF PERFECT LIBERATION, rnam thar sgo gsum. A central notion of the Mahayana teachings of the second turning of the Dharma wheel. They are a means of approach to ultimate reality through an understanding of three qualities implicit in all phenomena. The three doors are: (I) all phenomena are empty; (2) they are beyond all attributes; and (3) they are beyond all aspiration or expectation. THREE JEWELS, dkon mchog gsum. Skt. triratna. The Triple Gem of Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha; the object of Buddhist refuge. THREE KA YAS, sku gsum. See Five Bodies. THREE KINDS OF WISDOM. The wisdom resulting from hearing (thos pa'i shes rab), reflecting on (bsam pa'i shes rab), and meditating on the teachings (sgom pa'i shes rab). THREE NATURES, rang bzhin gsum. A threefold categorization of phenomena con- sisting of the imputed reality, dependent reality, and actual reality, as presented in the sutras of the third turning of the wheel of Dharma. The interpretation of this threefold distinction varies according to the philosophical outlook of the commentator. THREE POISONS, dug gsum. The three main afflictions of attachment, hatred, and ignorance. See Afflictions. GLOSSARY 523
THREE PURE GROUNDS, aag pa' i sa gsum. Set Ground.
THREE REALITIES. Set Three natures. THREE SPHERES, 'khor 10gsum, lit. three wheels. Conceptions of the inherent exis- tence of the object, the subject, and the action itself. THREE-THOUSANDFOLD UNIVERSE, stong gsum. A billionfold cosmic system of universes, each of which comprises a Mount Meru and four cosmic continents. THREE TRAININGS, bslabs pa gsum. Trainings in ethical discipline (tshul khrims), con- centration (ting nge 'azin), and wisdom (shes rab). The three trainings form the basis of the Buddhist path. THREE TURNINGS OF THE DHARMA WHEEL, ,hos k)'i 'khor 10 gsum. The Buddha Shakyamuni gave teachings on three different levels, referred to as the three turnings of the Dharma wheel. On the first occasion at Sarnath, he expounded the doctrine of the four noble truths. Later, at Vulture Peak, he set forth the doctrine of emptiness subsequently recorded in the Prajnaparamita sutras. Fi- nally, on various occasions, he gave teachings on the Tathagatagarbha, the bud- dha nature, such as are recorded in the Sanahinirmo,hana and other sutras. THREE TYPES OF BEINGS, sk)'es bu gsum. (I) those who aspire to happiness in the higher states of samsaric existence; (2) those who aspire to liberation from samsara altogether; and (3) those who aspire to buddhahood for the sake of all beings. THREE TYPES OF SUFFERING, saug bsngalgsum. (I) the suffering of suffering-pain as such; (2) the suffering of change-the fact that happiness is impermanent and liable to turn into its opposite; and (3) all-pervading suffering in the making-the fact that all actions grounded in the ignorance of the true nature of things will, sooner or later, bring fonh suffering. THREE VEHICLES, theg pa gsum. The vehicles of Shravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and Bodhisattvas. According to the Hinayana point of view, it is asserted that these three vehicles are final paths and correspond to three definite types of beings. By contrast, the Mahayana teaches that the three vehicles correspond to what is merely a temporary orientation and that in the last analysis there is only one vehicle leading to buddhahood. This means that, after accomplishing the fruit of their path, which is not, as they believe, final, the Shravakas and Pratyeka- buddhas are at length roused from the peace of their nirvana and enter the Mahayana. They then follow the bodhisattva path and attain buddhahood. THREE VOWS, saom gsum. The vows and disciplines of the Hinayana, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. TORMA, gtor mao A ritual object of varying shape and composed of a variety of substances. Depending on the context, the torma is considered as an offering, a symbolic representation of a yidam deity, a vehicle of blessings, or even a weapon for dispelling obstacles. 524 GLOSSARY
TORMENT UNSURPASSED, mnar mea, Skt. avici. The lowest of the hot hells, ac- cording to Buddhist teaching, characterized by the most intense and protracted form of suffering.
TRADITION OF THE PROFOUND VIEW, Ita ba zab mo'i lugs. The sutras of the second turning of the Dharma wheel, setting forth the profound view of emptiness, were compiled by Manjushri and commented upon by Nagarjuna. In his six treatises on reasoning, the latter established that all phenomena are empty by their nature (rang stong), and in his Stotras and so on (commenting upon the meaning of the sutras of the third turning of the wheel), he spoke of "empti- ness of other" (gzhan stong), namely, that the ultimate nature of the mind is empty of adventitious stains and endowed with inalienable qualities. Nagarjuna is the founder of the tradition of the Profound View. This was subsequently upheld and commented upon by Aryadeva, Buddhapalita, Bhavaviveka, and Chandrakirti, while masters such as Shantideva and Jetari propagated the prac- tice of bodhichitta according to the same tradition. With regard to the ritual for taking the bodhichitta vow and its ensuing practice, the Nyingmapas mostly follow the tradition of Nagarjuna. With regard to their view, however, they follow both the tradition of the Profound View and the tradition of Vast Activities taught by Asanga. TRADITION OF VAST ACTIVITIES, sPJ10a pa rg)'a ,he ba'i lugs. The Bodhisattva Mai- treya compiled the sutras of the third turning of the wheel, composed the five treatises named after him (which establish the view of "emptiness of other," gzhan stong), and taught them to Asanga. Asanga further wrote Five Treatises on the Grounas (sa ae lnga) and other works, while his brother Vasubandhu, after em- bracing the Mahayana, composed eight prakaranas, or explanatory texts. These are the source of the tradition of Vast Activities, which expounds the teaching on the buddha nature and the Bodhisattva bhumis, and so on. This tradition was upheld and propagated by such masters as Dignaga, Dharmakirti, and Chandragomin. The ritual of the vow, and practice of bodhichitta, according to this tradition was introduced to Tibet by Atisha. TRANSCENDENT PERFECTION. Set Paramita. TRIPITAKA, Sat moa gsum. The Three Collections of the words of the Buddha (Vinaya, Sutra, and Abhidharma). They were compiled at the first council held shortly after the parinirvana of the Lord Buddha in the Nyagrodha cave at Rajagriha under the aegis of King Ajatashatru. Ananda recited from memory all the Buddha's sutric teachings, Kashyapa all his metaphysical teachings, and Upali all the rules of ethical discipline. The collection was supplemented and completed at the third council held at the behest of King Kanishka. TRUE EXISTENCE, yoa pa. According to Buddhist teaching, true existence implies characteristics, such as indivisibility, immutability, and so on. TUSHITA, aga' /Jan. The Joyous Realm, the fourth divine sphere of the desire realm, in which Buddha Shakyamuni abode before appearing in our world. GLOSSARY 525
Two ACCUMULATIONS, tshogsgn)'is. (I) The accumulation of merit performed on the basis of the discursive mind (bsoJ nams kyi tshogs), in other words, the positive energy arising from wholesome action and (2) the accumulation of wisdom beyond discursive thought ()'e shes kyi tshogs) arising from the understanding that in all experience, subject, object, and action are devoid of inherent existence.
T w o OBSCURATIONS, sgrib gn)'is. (I) Emotional obscurations (n),on sgrib) such as the afflictions of attachment and anger and (2) cognitive obscuration (shes sgrib), that is, dualistic conceptual thinking, which prevents omniscience. These two obscurations are like veils that cover the ultimate nature of the mind and phenomena. They are also respectively referred to as attachment and impedi- ment (chags thogs). Two TRUTHS, bJengn)'is. The relative truth and absolute truth, the interpretation of which is pivotal in the establishment of the various system of Buddhist tenets. See Relative truth; Absolute truth. Two VEILS, sgribgnyis. Set Two obscurations. TWOFOLD AIM, Jon gnyis. (I) Buddhahood for oneself and (2) the temporary and ultimate fulfillment of other beings. TWOFOLD KNowLEDGE. (I) The knowledge of the nature of things (ji Ita ba'i mkh),en pa) and (2) the knowledge of all things in their multiplicity (ji sn)'eJ pa'i mkh)'en pa), both of which are possessed by enlightened beings. TWOFOLD PURITY, Jag pa gn)'is. (I) The original natural purity of the mind, present in the minds of all sentient beings (rang bzhin )'e Jag), and (2) the purity from all adventitious stains (glo bur 'phral Jag), which is the result of the path and is the preserve of Buddhas only. ULTIMATE EXCELLENCE, nges ltgs. The state of buddhahood. ULTIMATE OR 0 EFINITIV E MEANING, nges Jon. Teachings which directly express the way things are from the point of view of realized beings. ULTIMATE REALITY, chos n),M. Thatness, the nature of each and every phenome- non, emptiness beyond all conceptual constructions. ULTIMATE TRUTH. Set Absolute truth. UNCOMPOUNDED PHENOMENON, 'Jus ma b;'as. A phenomenon that is devoid of origin, abiding, and cessation and is therefore totally immutable, for example, space and nirvana. The hinayana and the mahayana tenet systems have different interpretations of this term. U NW AVERING ACTION, mi g-)'o ba'i las. A positive action, such as a profound state of meditation devoid of the motivation of bodhichitta. The characteristic fea- ture of this kind of action is that it invariably produces rebirth in the form or formless realms of samsara. Other actions lack this unwavering or invariable 526 GLOSSARY
quality in the sense that, depending on circumstances, their result may ripen in a realm different from the one normally to be expected.
U PASAKA, Skt., agt bsn)'tn. A Buddhist lay practitioner who has taken some or all of the precepts of the upasaka vow. U PAVASA, Skt., bsn)'tn gnas. The twenty-four-hour pratimoksha vow, consisting of eight precepts and taken by laypeople. U SHNISHA, gtsug gtor. The crown protuberance, one of the principal physical signs of complete buddhahood. UTTARAKURU, sgra mi sn)'an. The northern cosmic continent, where beings possess natural discipline. V AIBHASHIKA, Skt., byt brag smra ba. The first of the hinayana tenet systems, in which the indivisible particle of matter and the indivisible instant of conscious- ness are regarded as ultimate truth. V AIROCHANA, rnam par snang mazaa. The Dhyani Buddha of the Tathagata family corresponding to the aggregate of form. V AJRA, rao rjt. Diamond or vajra weapon, a symbol of indestructibility, also used to represent skillful means or compassion. The vajra or dorje is frequently employed in tantric rituals in conjunction with a bell (aril bu), which in tum symbolizes the wisdom of emptiness. V AJRA KINDRED, rao rjt spun. Spiritual brothers and sisters or fellow practitioners in the Vajrayana. The closest kinship exists between those disciples who receive the empowerment in the same mandala from the same teacher. V AJRAPANI, Skt., ph)'ag na rao rjt. A great Bodhisattva, one of the eight Close Sons. He personifies the power and the Mind of all the Buddhas. V AJRAYANA, Skt., rao rjt thtg pa. The corpus of teachings and practices based on the tantras, scriptures that discourse upon the primordial purity of the mind. Stt also Expository vehicle of causality. V AST ACTIVITIES. Stt Tradition of Vast Activities. V ASUBANDHU, abyig gnytn (280-360 C.E.). The only acharya who enjoys equal prestige as an exponent of both the Hinayana and the Mahayana. During his Sarvastivadin phase he composed the AbhidharmakoshabhaS),a, which is the most systematic and complete exposition of the Abhidharma and marks the summit of hinayana scholarship. Later in life, through his own inner development and under the influence of his elder brother Asanga, Vasubandhu adopted the mahayana yogachara view and composed many works of which the Trimsikavi- jnapti-karika (Thirf)' Stanzas on tht Mina) is the most outstanding. VEHICLE, thtg pa, Skt. yana. A system of teachings providing the means for travel- ing the path to enlightenment. There are three main vehicles: Shravakayana, Pratyekabuddhayana, and Bodhisattvayana. GLOSSAR Y 527
V IDEHA, Ius 'phags po. Set Four continents.
V IDYADHARA, Skt., rig 'az;n, lit. awareness holder or knowledge holder. A being of high attainment in the Vajrayana. According to the Nyingma tradition, there are four levels of Vidyadhara corresponding to the ten (sometimes eleven) levds of realization of the Sutrayana. They are: (I) the Vidyadhara with corpo- ral residue (rnam sm;n rig 'az;n); (2) the Vidyadhara with power over life (tshe abang rig 'az;n); (3) the Mahamudra Vidyadhara (phyag chen rig 'az;n); and (4) the Vidyadhara of spontaneous presence (Ihun grub rig 'Jz;n). V IKRAMASHILA, Skt., rnam gnon ngang tshul. An ancient Indian monastic university founded in the eighth century and second only to Nalanda in imponance. V IMALAMITRA, ar; mea bshes gn)'tn. One of the greatest masters and scholars of Indian Buddhism. He went to Tibet in the ninth century, where he taught and translated numerous Sanskrit texts. He was one of the principal sources, to- gether with Guru Padmasambhava, of the Dzogchen teachings in Tibet. VIMUKTASENA, sgroi sae. A predecessor of Shantarakshita as an exponent of the upper school of the Svatantrika, but not considered its founder. V IN AYA, Skt., 'aul ba. The name of the Buddhist ethical teachings in general and of the code of monastic discipline in panicular. VIPASHYANA, Skt., Ihag mthong, lit. enlarged vision or profound insight. Vipashyana is essentially the primordial wisdom that overcomes the ignorant belief in the existence of the sdf and realizes ultimate reality. VIRTUE TENDING TO HAPPINESS, bsoa nams cha mthun. All posItive actions per- formed on the basis of a belief in a truly existent agent, act, and object, and which are productive of samsaric happiness. VIRTUE TENDING TO LIBERATION, thar pa cha mthun. The virtue arising from all trainings, meditations, and positive action, accompanied by the determination to free oneself from samsara and combined with the wisdom that realizes the absence of inherent existence. WATER TORMA, chugtor. An offering made with water, milk, and grains. WHEEL OF DHARMA, chos k)'; 'khor 10. The symbol of the Buddha's teachings. Set also Three turnings of the Dharma wheel. WHEEL OF INEXHAUSTIBLE ORNAMENTS, zaa m; shes pa'; rg)'an g)'; 'khor 10. The enlightened body, speech, mind, qualities, and activities of the Buddhas. WIND ENERGY, rlung, Skt. prana. A psychophysical component that circulates in the subtle channels ofthe body and acts as the support ofthe mind. In ordinary beings the wind energy is impure. It is called karmic energy (las ky; rlung) because it is contaminated by karma. When purified, however, it becomes wisdom energy (ye shes k)'; rlung). 528 GLOSSARY
WISDOM. (I) ShtS rab, Skt. prajna, the ability to discern correctly; the understanding of emptiness. (2) yt shts, Skt. jnana, the primordial and nondual knowing aspect of the nature of the mind.
WISH-FULFILLING JEWEL, ),M bzh;n nor bu, Skt. chintamani. A fabulous jewel found in the realms of the gods or nagas which fulfills all wishes. W ISH-FULFILLING TREE, dpag bsam g)'; sh;ng. A magical tree which has its roots in the asura realm but bears its fruit in the divine sphere of the Thirty-three. WORLD OF DESIRE, 'dod khams. A general term referring to the six samsaric realms. Stt also Desire realm. Y AMA, gsh;n rjt. The Lord of Death, a metaphorical personification of death. YIDAM, )'; dam. A tantric deity, in male or female form, representing different aspects of enlightenment. Yidams may be peaceful or wrathful and are medi- tated upon according to the nature and needs of the individual practitioner. YOGA, Skt., mal 'bJ'or, lit. joining ('byor) or union with the natural state of the mind (rnal ma). A term commonly used to refer to spiritual practice. YOGACHARA. Stt Chittamatrins. ZUR. Teachers of Zur family lineage. Many Nyingmapa teachers of the tenth to twelfth centuries belonged to this clan. They were renowned for both their knowledge and their attainments.
ion, 2003. Khyentse, Dilgo. Enlightened Courage: An Explanation oj Atisha's Seven Point Mind Training. Ithaca, N.Y.: Snow Lion, 1994. - - - . The Wish-Fu!filling Jewel: The Practice oj Guru Yoga According to the Longchen N)'ingthig Tradition. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1988. Mipham Rinpoche. Gatewa)' to Knowledge. Hong Kong: Rangjung Yeshe Publica- . tlons, 1997. Murti, T. R. V. The Central Philosoph), oj Buddhism. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1960. Patrul Rinpoche. The Words oj M), Perfect Teacher. New York: HarperCollins, 1994; Altamira 1998; Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1999. Pelden, Khenchen Kunzang, and Minyak Kunzang Sonam. Wisdom: Two Buddhist Commentaries. Translated by the Padmakara Translation Group. Saint Leon-sur- Vezere, France: Editions Padmakara, 1993, 1999. Perdue, Daniel E. Debate in Tibetan Buddhism. Ithaca, N.Y.: Snow Lion, 1992. Rabjam, Longchen. The Practice oj Dzogchm. Introduced, translated, and annotated by Tulku Thondup. Ithaca, N.Y.: Snow Lion, 1996. Rangdrol, Tsele Natsok. The Mirror ojMindfulness: The Cycle ojthe Four Bardos. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1989.
Russell, Bertrand. The Probltms of Philosoph),. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1912. Shantideva. The Wa)' of the Boahisattva: A Translation of the BoahichaT)'avatara. Boston:
Shambhala Publications, 1997. Tendar, Sogpo. )'on tan rin po che'i mazoa k)'i aka' gnaa rao rje'i rgya maua 'grel iry'ea legs bshaa g)'i thur mao Tibetan xylograph. Thondup, Tulku. Masters of Meaitation ana Miracits: The Longchen N)'ingthig Lineage of Tibttan Buaahism. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1996. Tulku, Tarthang. Light ofLiberation. Berkeley: Dharma Publishing, 1992. SUTRAS Ajatasbat1'u-pa1'iva1'ta, The Chapter of Ajatashatru, ma sk)'tS agra'i It'u Akasbaga1'bba-sut1'a, The Sutra of Akashagarbha, nam mkha'; snying po'i mao Aksbayamati-pa1'ip1'iuba-sut1'a, The Sutra Requested by Akshayamati, blo gros mi zaa pas zhus pa'i mao Anitya1'tba pa1'ikatba, The Discourse on Impermanence, mi rtag pa'i gtam A1'ya-LokaJba1'a-pa1'ip1'iuba-sut1'a, The Sutra of the Questions of Arya Lokadhara, 'phags pa Jig rltn 'azin g)'is aris pa'i mao Avatamsaka-sut1'a, The Great Compendium Sutra, phal po che'i mao Bbad1'akalpita-sut1'a, The Fortunate Kalpa Sutra, bskal pa bzang po'i mao Bodbisattvap1'atimoksba-sut1'a, The Bodhisattva Pratimoksha Sutra, b),ang chub stms apa'i so sor thar pa'i mao Cband1'ap1'adipa-sut1'a, The Lamp of the Moon Sutra, zla ba'i sgron me'i mao Dasbacbak1'aksbitiga1'bba-sut1'a, The Ten Wheel Sutra, 'khor 10 bcu pa'i mao Dasbadba1'maka-sut1'a, The Ten Dharma Sutra, chos bcu pa Gandavyuba sut1'a, The Tree-Garland Sutra, saong po bkoa pa'i mao H1'iJaya-sut1'a, The Heart Sutra, shes rab snying po mao Lrmasbataka-sut1'a, The Hundred Actions Sutra, las brg)'a pa L1'mavibbanga, Actions Distinguished, las rnam par 'iry'ea pa Lsbyapa-pa1'iva1'ta, The Kashyapa Chapter, 'oa srung gi It'u Lalitavista1'a-sut1'a, The Sutra of Great Play, rg)'a cher rol pa Lankavata1'a-sut1'a, The Visit to Lanka Sutra, lang kar gshtgs pa'i mao 532 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Mababbtri-sutTa, The Great Drum Sutra, rnga bo che'i mao Mabagubyaupayakausbalya-sutTa, The Sutra of Skillful Me-ans of the Great Secret,
gsang chen thabs La mkhas pa'i mao Mabamoksba-sutTa, The Gre-at Liberation Sutra, thar pa chen po'i mao NiyataniyatagatimuJTavataTa-sutTa, The Sutra of Certain and Uncertain Displace-- ment, nges pa aang ma nges pa La Jug pa'i mao PitaputTasamagama-sutTa, The Sutra of the Meeting of the Father with the Son, )'ab sras mjal ba'i mao PTatimoksba-sutTa, The- Individual Liberation Sutra, so sor thar pa'i mao RajavavaJaka-sutTa, The Sutra of Advice for the King, rg)'al po La gaams pa'i mao Ratnakuta, The Jewel Mound Sutra, akon mchog brtsegs pa Ratnamegba-sutTa, The Cloud of Jewels Sutra, akon mchog sprin RatnaTasbi-sutTa, The Heap of Je-wels Sutra, rin po che'i phung po'i mao Ratnolka-sutTa, The Sutra of the Precious Palm Tre-e, akon mchog ta la La'i mao SaJJbaTmapunJaTika-sutTa, The White Lotus Sutra, paa ma akar po'i mao SaJJbaTmasmTityupastbana-sutTa, The Close- Mindfulness Sutra, aran pa n)'er bzhag mao SagaTamati-paTipTiccba-sutTa, The Sutra Requested by Sagaramati, blo gros rg)'a mtshos zhus pa'i mao SamaJbiTaja-sutTa, The King of Concentrations Sutra, ting 'azin rgyal po'i mao SancbayagatbapTajnapaTamita-sutTa, The Condensed Prajnaparamita Sutra, mao saua pa SanJbinirmocbana-sutTa, The Sutra Decisively Revealing the Wisdom Intention, agongs pa nges 'grel g)'i mao SbTimalaJevisimbanaJa-sutTa, The Queen Shrimala Sutra, apal phrmg gi mao Subabu-paTipTiccba-sutTa, The Sutra Requested by Subahu, lag bzangs k)'is zhus pa'i mao TTiskanJbaka-sutTa, The Three Parts Sutra, phung po gsum pa tshang ba'i mao UJanavaTga, The Intentionally Spoken Chapters, chea au brjoa pa'i tshoms VimalapTabba-sutTa, The Sutra of the Immaculate-, ari ma mea pa'i mao Vinaya-uttaTagTantba, The Unparalleled Text on the Vinaya, 'aul ba gzhung aam pa Vinayavastu, The Basis of Vinaya, lung gzhi Vinayavibbanga, The Distinctions Regarding the Vinaya, lung rnam 'h)'ea BIBLIOGRAPHY 533
TIBETAN AND SANSKRIT TREATISES
Abbidbarmakosba by Vasubandhu, The Treasury of Abhidharma, mngon pa mdzod Abbidbarmasamuubaya by Asanga, The Compendium of Abhidharma, mngon pa kun btus Abbisamayalankara by Maitreya/Asanga, The Ornament for Clear Realization, mngon rtogs rg)'an Absorption's Easeful Rest by Longchen Rabjam, bsam brtan ngal gso BOdbicbaryavatara by Shantideva, The' Way of the Bodhisattva, spyod Jug Bodbicbittavivarana by N agarjuna, The Commentary on Bodhichitta, b)'ang chub sems grtl BOdbisattvabbumi-sbastra by Asanga, The Bodhisattva Grounds, b)'ang sa Buddbacbarita by Ashvaghosha, The Life of Buddha, sangs rgyas k)'i spyod pa De Cbariot oftbe Two Trutbs by Jigme Lingpa, bdtn gnyis shing rta De Commentary on tbe Praise oftbe Grounds, sa'i stod grel D e Description o f tbe Asuras, lha min gyi rabs De Description oftbe Hells, dmyal ba'i rabs De Garland ofLigbt by Bhutichandra, 'od phreng De Great Cbariot by Longchen Rabjam, shing rta chen po De Great Commentary on tbe Llacbakra by Dawa Zangpo, dus 'khor 'grel chen Introduction to Scbolarsbip by Mipham Rinpoche, mkhas Jug De Introduction to tbe Two Trutbs, bdm gnyis Jug pa De Lampfor tbe Patb by Atisha, lamg)'i sgron me Madbyamakalankara by Shantarakshita, The Ornament of the Middle Way, dbu ma'i rg)'an Madbyamakaloka by Kamalashila, The Light of the Middle Way, dbu ma snang ba Matlbyamakavatarabbasya by Chandrakirti, The Introduction to the Middle Way, dbu ma la Jug pa Mabarajakanisbka-Iekba by Matriceta, The Letter to King Kanishka, ka ni ka'i spring )"g De Mind at Rest by Longchen Rabjam, StmS n)'id ngalgso 534 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Mulamadbyamalta-Itarilta by Nagarjuna, The Treatise of the Middle Way Called Wisdom, abu ma rtsa ba'i shts rab
Mulamadbyamaltavrttiprasannapada by Chandrakirti, The Clear Worded, a Com- mentary on the Treatise on the Middle Way, tshiggsal Munimatalanltara by Abhayakaragupta, The Ornament of the Muni's Intended Meaning, thub abang agongs rg)'an Pancbaltrama by Nagarjuna, The Five Stages, rim pa Lnga pa Prajnapradipa by Bhavaviveka, The Lamp of Wisdom, shts rab sgron mt Rabula's Praises of tbe Motbt1', sgra gcan 'azin g)'is )'um Lt bstoa pa Ratnavali by Nagarjuna, The Jewel Garland, rin chtn phrtng ba Sammobavinodani by Buddhaghosha. Samvaravimsbalta by Chandragomin, The Bodhisattva's Vow in Twenty Verses, saom pa n)'i shu pa Satyadvayavibbanga by Jnanagarbha, The Two Truths of the Middle Way, abu ma batn gnyis rnam 'byta De Seven Treasures by Longchen Rabjam, mazoa baun De Seventy Sbloltas on Rtjuge, by Chandrakirti, sk)'abs gro baun bcu pa Sbiltsbasamuccbaya by Shantideva, The Compendium of Precepts, bsLab btus D e Songs of Realization by Jangya Rolpai Dorje, gsung mgur Subrlleltba by Nagarjuna, The Letter to a Friend, bshts springs Sutralanltara by Maitreya/Asanga, The Ornament of Mahayana Sutras, mao sat'i rg)'an De Dree Vows by Jigdral Yeshe Dorje, Dudjom Rinpoche, saom gsum De Dree Vows Distinguisbed by Sakya Pandita, saom gsum rab abyt A Treasure of Wisb-Fuljilling Jewels by Longchen Rabjam, )'iJ bzhin rin po cht'i mazoa D e Treasury of Tenets by Longchen Rabjam, grub mtha' mazoa Uttaratantra-sbastra by Maitreya/Asanga, The Sublime Continuum, rg)'ua bLt ma Vigrabavyavartani by Nagarjuna, The Commentary on the Refutation of Objec- tions, rtsoa Laog Vinaya-sutra by Gunaprabha, The Discourse on Discipline, 'aul ba'i mao rtsa Visuddbimagga by Buddhaghosha, The Path of Purity Vyaltbyayultti by Vasubandhu, The Principles of Elucidation, rnam par bshaa pa'i rigs pa BIBLIOGRAPHY 535
Yogacbarabbumi-sbastra by Asanga, The Treatise on the Grounds of Realization in Five Sections, sa Sat
T ANTRAS bJuJ rtsi 'byung ba'i rgyuJ, The Nectar Spring Tantra Jus 'kbor, Ka/achakra-tantra, The Wheel of Time Tantra gsang ba coJ pan, The Secret Diadem gsang ba 'Jus pa, Guhyasamaja-tantra, The Union of Secrets Tantra Jam Jpal rtsa rgyuJ, The Root Tantra of Manjushri 'kbor 10 cbub pa'i 1'01 pa, The Play of the Accomplished Mandala kun bytJ rgyal po, The All-Creating King Tantra mJo Jgongs pa 'Jus pa, The Epitome of Essential Meaning nam mkba'i klong yangs kyi rgyuJ, The Vastness of the Sky Tantra paJ ma rtSt mo rgyuJ, The Lotus Tip Tantra pbyag rJor Jbang bskur ba'i rgyuJ, The Empowerment of Vajrapani Tantra rJo rjt sems Jpa'i sgyu 'pbrul Jr"a ba, Vajrasattva's Phantasmagorical Net Tantra rgya mtsbo'i rgyuJ, The Tantra of the Ocean rgyuJ gsang ba snying po, Guh)'agarbha-tantra, The Secret Essence Tantra rgyuJ pbyi ma, The Later Tantra rig pa mcbog gi rgyuJ, The Supreme Awareness Tantra sangs rgyas mnyam sbyor, Sarvabuaahasama)'ayoga-tantra, The Union of Buddhas Tantra tbal Dur rgyuJ, The "Thalgyur" Tantra yiJ bzbin mcboggi rgyuJ, The Supreme Wish-Fulfilling Tantra
unwavering, 119, 158, 44onl3 VlttUOUS, 151 Set also karma adoption and rejection, principle of, 119 aggregates, five, 173-74, 337, 377-85, 485n264 source of suffering, 385 alaya, 139, 250, 341, 366, 385 karmic traces stored in, 142, 169, 262 alayavijnana, 139, 385 alcohol, 295-96 anger, 319-20, 380 dealing with, 320-21 destroyer of merit, 211 inimical to the four truths, 217 unreal causes of, 320 appearance, mere, 354, 406, 484n251 inseparable from emptiness, 406, 409 not what entangles us, 344, 409 Arhat(ship), 230-33, 267 attainment of, 174 arya lineage (Hinayana), 214, 450n64 452n71 .. nine succeSSive, 227, 333, 432, 455n90, 478n220 of nonperception, 441nl4 of Shravakas, Bodhisattvas, 441nl4 acceptance. Set paths, five: of joining accumulation, path of. Set paths, five accumulations, two, 153, 204, 207-8, 212, 235-36, 356 difference between, 467nl50 no other way to attain buddhahood, 280, 316 related to paramitas, 280 in sutra and tantra, 245 action(s) eight wrong, 443n28 effects of action: conditioning effect,
Aryadeva, 268, 306, 348, 420, 427, 429 Asanga, 181, 288, 291, 384, 464n136,
466nl45 on bodhichitta vows, 266 on sixteen instants of four truths, 221 Ashvaghosha (Shuracharya), 126, 214, 336, 450n65 on the three vows, 309 aspiration four excellent principles of, 208 prayers of, 317, 375n204 aspirational practice, path of, 272, 283, 315, 318, 344, 408 asuras, 140, 167-68, 360, 361 Atisha, 276, 461nll9 on third and fourth empowerment, 310 Atsara Marpo, 308, 474nl92 attachment, 380 to the body, 282, 467nl54 to rdatives and friends, 282, 467nlH seven kinds of, 261, 462nl24 attention, 378 six types of, 333, 478n219 Avalokiteshvara, 259, 281 ayatanas, 337, 435 eight dominant, 333, 433 ten limitless, 227, 432-33 bajung, 256, 461nl20 bardo, 128, 206, 238, 323, 369-72 clairvoyance of bardo beings, 323, 477n209 helping beings in, 371-72, 485n261 light-appearance (light-increase), 366, 485n259 no perception ofsun and moon in, 370 six uncertainties of, 129, 369-70 bathing offering, 257-60 begging, 189 beings animate, the formation of, 360 dreamlike, 241 evolution, four periods, 362, 484n255 our links with them, 160 their naturally evil inclinations, 262- 63, 265 Bhavaviveka, 348, 416 bhikshu. Stt untltr pratimoksha bhikshuni. Stt untltr pratimoksha Botlhicharyavatara, 137, 148, 153, 211, 248, 252, 266, 268, 271, 301, 307, 319, 323, 345, 397, 410, 438 bodhichitta, 247, 248, 301 in action, 249, 252; four root downfalls of, 466n148; precepts of, 280 aspirational, 249, 250-51, 266-68; four precepts of, 275-80; loss of, 274, 466n143; three trainings of, 249, 276 associated with paramitas, 460nll7 authentic, 239, 459nl09 classifications of, 249-53 downfalls, 273-74, 466n148; of bodhi- chitta in action, four, 466n148; causes of, 272, 464n134; confession of, 274-75; confessions by those o f superior capacity, 275, 466n144; of king, 274, 464n137; in Madhyamika or Yogachara, 464n136; of minister, 274, 465n138; of ordinary people, 274, 465nl39 faults against, eighty, 465n141; three categories, 274; minor infractions, forty-six, 467nl48 and five paths, 239-40 four attitudes that strengthen, 279 four conditions for, 255 and merit, 255, 461nll9 rejection of, 271 seven-point causal sequence, 276-78 three roots of, 254 three ways of generating, 281 twenty-two similes of, 251, 460nll7 vessds for, 254-55, 461nll8 vows o f (Stt untltr vows) Bodhisattvas, 109, 270 discipline of, 285-86 monastic vs. lay, 286-87 negative actions permitted to, 285-86 538 INDEX
three kinds of, 280-81
truth of, 109, 157, 174, 180-85, 225, 355, time taken on their path, 281 Brahmaviharas, four, 241, 459nII2 Buddha(s), 109, 224 compassion of, 2}3 knowledge of, five special features, 434 qualities of, 234, 266; already present in tathagatagarbha, 226; eighteen distinctive, 223-24, 389-90, 435; of elimination, 109, 214, 215, 223; of re- alization, 109, 223-24, 387-90 silence of, 341 superior to Arhats and Pratyekabudd- has, 389-90 three aspects of, 109 twelve deeds of, 461nII7 buddhafields, 260 buddhahood, 108-10, 357 found in one's own mind, 232 the ultimate refuge, 456n99 buddha nature, 153, 250. Sit also tathagata- garbha Buddhapalita, 348, 488n282 Buddhist writings five important headings, III, 44onl0 five-element structure, 107, IIO, 439n4 fourfold interrelated purpose, 110, 373-75 chakravartin, 126, 137, 166, 363 Chandragomin, 288, 467nl48 Chandrakirti, 348, 417, 420, 483n246, 488n282 Charvakas, 176, 481n231, 489n293 Chittamatra, 346-47, 349, 377, 385, 482n239 on three final vehicles, 458nl08 on three realities, 340, 420, 480n226 on three turnings of dharma-wheel, 340 on vows, 314 cognltlon five omnipresent factors of, 378 compassion "glow" of emptiness, 243 great compassion of Buddhas, 435 Sit also four boundless attitudes conceived object (of refutation), 421-22 concentration, 328, 379, 469n159, 478n215 childish, 329-32 clearly discerning, 329, }32-33 diamondlike, 357, 479n222 fearless, 479n222 miragelike, 479n222 of the Tathagatas, 329, }32 conditioning factors, 385. Sit also aggre- gates conditions, four, 255, 459nII4 confession, 262 monastic ritual, 291, 470nl74 . conSClousness defiled emotional, 158 six, seven, or eight consciousnesses, 139, 142, 385; do not generate karma, 139 Set also aggregates, five conscientiousness (bag yo/), 379 contentment, 264, 325 creator, divine, 176, 446n46, 485n264 dead, helping the, 371-72, 485n261 death, 128, 172 44on7 six faults o f non-Buddhist writings, I I I , 44on9 three qualifications to compose, III, 44on8 three qualities of, III, 44on9 careful attention, 273, 464nl34 castes, four, 484n257 cessation absorption of (see unJer absorption) of Arhats, 174, 239 freedom of, 432 of phenomena, 314, 351, 401, 427 through analysis, 485n265 without analysis (nonanalytical), 485n265 INDEX 539
dissolution of elements at time of, ~66 lights appearing at time of, ~66, 485n259 decency, sense of (khrtl yol), ~79 dedication, 26~-64, 46~nI30 vs. aspiration, 463nl~0 defilement, 272, 27~ coemergent, 464nl~; in Great Perfection, 299 transmuted in vajrayana, 298 deity (mantrayana), 295, 472n185 demons of desire, 159, 265 four, ~23, 476n207 dependent arising (interdependence), 153, ~05, 340, 410, 414, 417 argument of, 427 and emptiness, ~4~, 42~, 4~7 and the ground nature, 351 inconceivable power of, 305 most crucial of Buddha's teaching, 182, 446n45,447n49 not fully realized by Shravakas, 447n50 of nirvana, 354, 484n250 and phenomena, 268, H9-40, 34~, 346- 47, 414, 424, 406, 447n50 ofsamsara, 353 twelve links of, 175-83, 353-54, 446n45, 483n249; completed in a single ac- tion, 447n47; completed in two or three lifetimes, 179-80; four ways of presenting, 177-78; meditation on, 180-83 unoriginated nature of, 183 desire realm. Stt undtr three realms o f exis- tence Dharma, 109, 229, 2~1 definitions of term, 453n82 four periods in the history of, 448n54 gift of, 283-84 letters and syllables as basis of, 226 pitakas or baskets of, 225, 342 of realization, 109, 226-29, 341, 454n87 of transmission, 109, 225-26, 232, 341, 456n99 as truths of cessation and path, 225 dharmadhatu, 350 dharma protectors (mundane), 236, 457n103 dharma-wheel symbolism of, 263, 463nl29 turnings of, 269, 450n108, 480n226, 495, 507, 523-25 diligence, 322 based on keenness, 378 three kinds of, ~23-24 disciples, 198-200 foolish, 206 four ways to attract, 192, 318 three categories of, 199, 449n57 discipline of avoiding negativity, 284-316 of benefiting others, 318 eight-branch, 288 eight qualities of, 460nl;9 four types of, 471n178 of gathering virtue, 316 Hinayana vs. Mahayana, 284 perfectly pure, 312 uncompounded, 312, 475nl99 dissipation, H4 eight auspicious symbols, 256, 462nl22 eight perfect freedoms, 431-32 eight substances offered to Buddha, 256, 462n123 eight worldly concerns, 135, 194, 209 eightfold noble path, 394-95, 445n41 elements, five, 353, 442nl6 elimination, qualities of. Stt undtr Buddha empowerment(s),473nI88 four, necessary for buddhahood, 311 and transformation, 300 empttness absence of reference, 437 consists in dependent arising, 423 great emptiness, 321, 422 540 INDEX
never separate from appearance, 418 not a predicate, 424, 489n292
... " not a View, 429 realization of, 351, 483n246 endurance (name of universe), 367, 485n260 extremes (conceptual, ontological) eight, 344, 353, 409 four, 347, 352, 459nll3 four philosophical positions, 489n293 shown in four kinds of production, 42 5 eye, five kinds of, 223, 387 faith, 379 three kinds of, 214-15 feeling, 142, 378, 443n25. Stt also aggre- gates, five five elements, system of, 107-8, 110, 439n4 five excellencies (cenainties), 110, 358, 439n6 five imponant headings, 111-12, 44onl0 five pathways, 233, 456nl01 five sins of immediate effect, 121, 151, 443n26 flexibility, meditative, 330, 478n217 form. Stt aggregates, five form and formless realms. Stt unatr three realms of existence form bodies, 235. Stt also rupakaya four bases for miraculous powers, 226, 392, 395 four black and four white factors, 278-79 four boundless attitudes, 239-45, 247, 249, 260, 276, 278, 431, 459nll0 benefits of, 242 contrasted with four Brahmaviharas, 241, 459nll2 four conditions for, 459nll4 proper to Mahayana, 241, 244-45 four castes, 484n257 four close mindfulnesses, 226, 391, 395 Hinayana vs. Mahayana approaches to, 391 four dharanis, 223, 388 four fearlessnesses, 223, 357, 388, 434, four genuine restraints, 226, 392, 495 four noble truths, 109, 157-76, 214, 373-75 Asanga on, 181 and dependent arising, 181-83 meaning of term, 374 and paths of joining, seeing and medi- tation, 219, 392-94 obstacles to understanding of, 216-17 sequential exposition of, 274 sixteen aspects of, 373-74, 485n263 truth of cessation, 174, 225, 454n83, 485n265 truth of origin, 173-74 truth of path, 109, 174-75, 225, 454n83 truth of suffering, 158-73; four instants of realization of, 220 and two truths, 400 understood as phenomena, 216, 451n67 without ultimate existence, 447n50 four perfect principles (of excellent aspi- ration), 208 four periods of humanity, 362, 484n256 four periods of the teachings, 448n54 four reliances, 312, 336, 479n224 four types of binh, 113, 440nll gelong (bhikshu). Stt untltr pratimoksha gelongma (bhikshuni). Stt unatr prati- moksha generally characterized things, 345, 482n238 generation and perfection stages, 205, 209, 227, 296, 314, 454n87 generosity, paramita of, 281-83, 462nl24 three kinds of, 281-84 getsul (shramanera). Stt unatr prati- moksha giving and taking (,gtong ltn), 275, 280 gods (form, formless), 360, 441nl4 deceptive refuges, 213, 234 insensate, 117, 119, 356, 441nl4 sufferings of, 165-67 INDEX 541
Great Perfection, 112, 299, 439n3, 447n49 ground, path, and fruit, 112, 345, 351-54,
415, 438 grounds, 357 eight (Hinayana), 231, 455n97 ten (Mahayana), 227-29, 251, 281, 323; impure, 281, ~18, ~57; pure, 250, 281, ~18, ~57, 416, 460nII6; related to bo- dhichitta, 249-51, ~18, 460nl16 thineen (Mantrayana), 229 guru. See teacher guru yoga, 205-8, 295 heavens Clear Light, 361, ~63 of desire realm, 258, 484n255 Enjoying Magical creations, 258 of Four Great Kings, 1~7, 166, 258, ~60-61 of Great Fruit, 166 Mastery of Magical Creations of Oth- ers, 270, ~61 of the Pure, 126, 140, 166 of the Thiny-three, 137, 140, 167, 360, 363 Stt also unatr three realms of existence hells cold, 164, 359 duration of, 164, 444n~6 ephemeral, 165, ~60 hot, 161-63, 359-60 location of, ~59 neighboring, 16~, 360 Torment Unsurpassed, 162-63, 202, 234 Hinayana, 19, 109, 2}3, 239, 458nl08, 464nl~4 on aryas, 45on65 cessation of, 441nl4 eight grounds of, 2~1, 455n97 eight kinds of beings, 2~0 eighteen schools of, 220 and entry into Mahayana, 458nl08 five paths of, 152, 219, ~91-94, 445n41, 452n71, 455n97 limited attitude of, 239 vs. Mahayana: on obscurations, 219-20; on path of accumulation, 391; on vows, 284-85 once returners, nonreturners, 219, 2~0 path 0 f "Ieap over," 219, 452n71 stream enterer, 230, 456n97 suppon for Mahayana, 447n50, See also Shravakas; Pratyekabuddhas human embryo, growth of, 170-71 human existence freedoms and advantages of, 117-21, 195 mere human existence, 117 precious human existence, 121-22; six- teen factors hindering, 441nl5 three types of, 44onl2 ignorance, ~81 of apprehending self, 1~9, 174, 479n221 attenuated on path of joining, 354 basis of karma, 139, 247, 262 basis of relative truth, 398 coemergent, 1~9 eliminated on path of meditation, 217, 354 eliminated on path of seeing, 215-16, 354 positive actions conditioned by, 139- 40, 442n2o of precepts, 291 and suffering, 158-59, 174, 355 and twelve links, 176- 82, ~53-54 illusion, eight examples of, 344, 409, 487n276 impaniality, three meanings of, 459nll1 Stt also four boundless attitudes imperceptible form, three kinds of, 377 Indrabodhi, 287, 468n158 Instants defined, 453n76 sixteen of path of seeing, 219-22, 542 INDEX 453n77
intention, 378, 444n29
and kanna, 135, 138, 142, 148, 286-87 and vows, 288, 291, 301- 2, 315, 475n2oo jealousy, 244, 463nl28 Jnanagarbha, 415, 416 joining, path of. Stt paths, five joy. Stt four boundless attitudes kalpa (aeon), 119, 362-66 dark, 120, 366 fonunate, 259, 363 great, 125-26, 366 intennediate, 119, 125-26, 362-64 Kamalashila, 415, 416, 488n281 kanna, 265 of arhats, 446n42 not generated after path of seeing, 354, 460nll6 not generated by six consciousnesses, 139 propelling, 165-66, 176, 180 stored in alaya, 139 and twelve links, 177-78, 180-81, 268 Stt also action Katyayana, 160 laziness, three kinds of, 322-23 "leap over," path of. Stt unatr Hinayana liberation, three doors of (perfect), 202, 235, 236, 339, 355, 437-38 livelihood, right and wrong, 189-90 Longchen Rabjam, 112, 299-300 on the two truths, 407-8, 418-19 love. Stt four boundless attitudes madhyamika, 351 on bodhichitta, 254-55 four great arguments of, 422, 424-28 great madhyamika, 417 not a "philosophy," 352 on three realities, 340 on three vehicles, 458nl08 on two truths, 398 view defined, 428-29 on vows, 475n2oo Stt also Prasangikas; Svatantrika Mahasanghika, 293, 453n75, 471nl79 mahasiddhas, 201-2 Mahayana, 239-45 nonretumers, 266, 463nl32 practice of: appropriate livelihood, 189-90; solitude vs. society, 188-89 vs. Hinayana, 219, 391 mantrayana. Stt tantra meat, 147, 160, 190 pure in three ways, 448n52 meditation, 113 analytic vs. resting, 328 "objectless," 423 on nature of mind, 356 path of. Stt paths, five practice of, 328-29 vs. post-meditation, 153, 221, 329, 334- 35, 350, 356-57, 391, 416 seven-point posture of, 328 ofShravakas vs. Buddhas, 389 mental factors associated, 378-84 non-associated, 377, 385 merit, 203, 211-12, 259 cause of rupakaya, 235 five signs of its past accumulation, 210 fragility of, 210-11 gained through rejoicing, 262 mere, 248 stainless, 152 Stt also vinue Middle Way. Stt madhyamika mind defiled emotional (nyon yil), 139, 158, 250, 385, 441n14, 460nll6 main mind and mental factors, 356, 384 nature of, 232, 233, 235, 237, 247, 305, 336; not distinct from ultimate na- ture, 350; not a non-entity, 355; sam- sara and nirvana indistinguishable in, 438 INDEX 543
self-knowing, 345, 346 transformation of, into wisdom, 304, 314 mindfulness, 212, 215, 238, 273, 317, 331, 333 right, 394, 445n41, 463nl29 (set also four close mindfulnesses) monastic life, 468nl57 eight qualities of, 469nl59 three basic rituals of, 291 See also pratimoksha Mount Meru, 125, 166-67, 238, 259, 359-61 Nagarjuna, 188, 266, 304, 347-48, 353, 464n136, 466nl42 has nothing to negate, 424 makes no assertion, 420 on sixteen instants of path of seeing, 221 works of, 483n244 negation, affirming and nonaffirming, 352-53, 427, 459n108, 487n27°' 487n276 nine mundane levels, 218 nirmanakaya, 224, 229, 235, 244n16, 258n26 supreme, 461nll7 nirvana, 225, 293, 351 attitude of arhats to, 446n43 dependent arising of, 354, 484n250 equality of samsara and nirvana, 153, 192, 235, 343, 437-38 extreme of, 153, 183, 231, 390, 459nl09 nonabiding, 239, 241, 270, 391, 447n50 as relative truth of, 401, 408 root of, 182, 375 with and without remainder, 174, 446n42,447n207,479n222 nonreturner. Set under Hinayana; Ma- hayana obscurations (veils) coemergent or Innate, 219, 452n70 cognitive, 109, 175, 215-24, 267-68, 357, 452n70; destroyed by wisdom, 335, 451n69; elimination of, 110, 215-17, 219-20, 222-23, 452n70; not re- moved by Hinayana, 267 emotional, 215-24, 267, 451n69, 452n70, 489n29° gross and subtle, 452n70 nine levels of intensity of, 218 offering, 261, 264, 462nl26 for the dead, 370, 485n261 Once Returner. Set under Hinayana origination. Set production paramitas (six perfections), 249, 280, 356-57 distinct from six virtues, 152, 239, 444n3° four special qualities of, 261, 462n125, 467nl49 implicit in a single action, 317 ten, 251, 280 particles, partless, 345 paths, five, 152-53, 226-27, 323, H4, 356- 57, 374 of accumulation, 152, 240, 249-51, 272, 281, 332, 356, 391-92; three levels of, 226, 356, 395 bodhichitta experienced on, 239-40, 250 and deity, 295, 472nl85 in Hinayana, 219, 230, 452n71, 455n97 of joining, 152, 157, 230, 240, 249-51, 272, 281, 332, H4, 356, 392-93, 395; four stages of, 157, 356, 392, 444n31 of meditation, 110, 152, 174, 215, 217, 219, 221-23, 227-29, 250-51, 333, H4, 357, 394, 451n69 (see also grounds) of no more learning, 152, 227, 242, 250, 332, 354, 357, 394, 455n94 of seeing, 110, 152, 215, 219-20, 222-23, 230, 240, 250-51, 281, 332-H, 356, 392-95, 441nI4, 451n69, 452nn70-71; caused by concentra- 544 INDEX
tion, 329, 332; no karma produced on, 354; sixteen instants of, 219, 220, 221
patience, paramita of, 280, 317, 319-22 three kinds of, 319, 321 peak. Stt paths, five: ofjoining, four stages of peak of existence, 126, 231, 360-61, 484n253, 486n266 perception, 173, 331-32, 334, 377-78, 482n238, 486n266 perception vs. percept, 424, 405 pure, 200, 206, 300, 303, 474nl94 the three types of, 142, 443n25 perfections, six transcendent. Stt para- mltas phenomena beyond conceptual extremes, 241, 343, 350, 352-53, 401- 2, 407, 409, 418, 438 clinging to, basis of karma, 134, 159 empty but appearing, 235, 329, 334, 343-44, 351-52, 399, 406 empty of themselves, 424 infinite purity of, 202, 250, 335, 449n60 not created, 138, 446n46 purity and equality of, 295-96, 309, 314, 337, 351, 398 Prasangikas, 347-51, 355, 403, 417-20, 428 on bodhichitta vow, 254-55 vs. Svatantrika, 422-23 Pratimoksha, 285, 307 bhikshu (age slong): vows of, 290; seven- teen precepts, 292, 471n177; three basic rituals, 291 bhikshuni (age slong rna), 469n160; vows of, 290-91 of Bodhisattvas, 468nl57 eligibility for, 301, 473nl87 enhancement of, 305-6, 313 essence of, 300- 2, 314 levels of ordination, 287 possibility of repairing, 288 shramanera, shramanerika (age tshul, age tshul rna): not "novices," 469n160; superior to upasakas, 289; vows of, 288-90 upasaka (age bsnyen): degrees of, 287; in manner of Chandragomin, 288 upavasa, 288 vows defined, 300-301; vs. bodhichitta, 272, 284-85, 287, 3°0 Pratyekabuddhas, 109, 152, 174, 230, 233, 363, 441n14, 455n97 and bodhichitta, 239 limitations of, 183, 224, 241, 389-90, 444n30, 447n5° nirvana of, according to Mahayana, 174 realization of, 183, 267, 445n41, 455n95 pretas, 118, 122, 127, 236, 238, 360 preternatural knowledge, six kinds of, 223, 387 production (origination), four kinds of, 340, 424-25, 481n231, 489n293 from extraneous cause, 416 prostration, three levels of, 109 rang stong vs. gzhan stong, 459n108 refuge basis of all vows, 235, 267 as a commitment, 213, 450n62 object of, 213, 232 possibility ofabandoning, 237, 458nl06 precepts of, 236-37 purifying effect of, 235, 457nl02 in the teacher, 232 ultimate refuge, 456n99 unsurpassable, 233 rejoicing, 262 relative truth, 342, 350, 397 appears to Aryas on impure grounds, 416 approach to the absolute, 410, 417 equals appearance, 339, 344, 406, 408, 414 and karma, 134 mistaken vs. unmistaken, 343, 402-4, INDEX 545
relative truth (continutJ)
415-16, 481n235; two kinds of un- mistaken, 404 object of intellect (ordinary mind), 344-45, 401, 405, 409 three aspects of, 486n267 Stt also unJtr two truths: according to four tenet systems renunciation (detennination to leave samsara), 193, 198-99, 208, 210, 215, 313, 375 enhanced by bodhichitta, 305, 313 essence of pratimoksha, 300-303, 314 royalty, seven attributes of, 256, 462nl21 rupakaya (fonn body), 145, 153,295,364, 404, 473n185 sadness (slryo ba), 159, 444nn samadhi, 126, 335, 434 four of fonn realm, 152, 166, 218, 329- 31, 333, 432, 441n14, 478n220; and destruction of universe, 363-64 six levels of, HI Stt also absorptions Samantabhadra (Bodhisattva), 476n205 five customs of, 307 samaya, 193, 199, 203, 294, 302, 304, 371 substances of, 295-96 sambhogakaya, 224, 229, 235, 243, 258 Sammitiya, 293, 453n75, 472nl79 samsara, 117, 119, 153, 248, 262-63, 234, 248, 270 dependent arising of, 353-54 equal with nirvana, 153, 192, 235, 343, 438 extreme of, 231, 267, 388, 438, 446n43, 447n5°,459nI09 happiness in, 270, 442nl7 origin of, 136, 140, 180, 182-83, 373, 375 sufferings of, 157-73, 181 Sangha, 108-9, 229, 231-32 correct attitude toward, 237, 457nl04 Hinayana vs. Mahayana, 109, 320-21 outer and inner, 231, 456n98 propetty of, 163, 165 qualities of, 229-31 Sanskrit, 107 Saraha, 201, 304 Sarvastivada, 293, 453n75, 471n179, 472nl80 Sautrantika, 140, 314, 345, 349, 377, 416 following scripture vs. following rea- soning, 481nn237-38 scriptures, twelve branches of, 225, 336, 454n84 secret mantra. Stt tantra seeing, path of. Stt paths, five self personal and phenomenal, 139, 152, 219, 347, 381, 428; a conceived object (zhtn )U0, 421, 451n69, 455n95 personal vs. phenomenal, 267, 414, 421, 488n287; and emotional and cogni- tive veils, 489n290 self and other, equalization and ex- change of, 249-50, 276 sense of, imputed vs. innate, 451- 52nn69-70 self-knowing awareness in Chittamatra, 346, 347, 420 in Madhyamika, 413 realizes ultimate nature, 183, 397, 447n5° in Svatantrika Madhyamika, 416 is the ultimate truth, 342, 397 vs. ordinary mind, 398 sense powers, 365-66, 485n258 sense objects, 160, 259, 296, 299, 303 appearance vs. enjoyment of, 344, 326, 40 9 seven branch prayer, 261-64 seven elements leading to enlightenment, 393 sevenfold reasoning, 428, 49on297 seven-point posture of Vairochana, 328 sexual intercourse in context of three vows, 299, 473nl91 shamatha, 328- 29, 332-33, 477nn213-14, 479n221 546 INDEX
distinguished from vipashyana, 329, 479n221
and vipashyana united, 219, 423 Shantarakshita, 415-16, 488n281 shramanera (getsul). Stt unatr prati- moksha Shravakas, 152, 175, 233, 441n14, 458nl08 and bodhichitta, 239 eighteen lineages, 220, 293, 453n75 four levels of, 230-31, 455n97 four main groupings, 293, 453n75, 471n179, 472nl81 limitations of, 183, 224, 241, 389-90, 444n3° nirvana of, according to Mahayana, 174 realization of, 183, 267, 445n41, 455n95 their understanding of dependent aris- ing, 183 Shuracharya. Stt Ashvaghosha six root defilements, 378, 380 skillful means, three aspects of, 318 solitude, 187-89, 324, 327 specifically characterized things, 345, 482n238 Sthavira, 293, 453n75, 471nl79 Stream Enterer. Stt unatr Hinayana suffering of animals, 118-19 of asuras, 167-68 eight complementary, 169 of gods, 165-67 of hell realms, 161-65 of humans, 168-73, 325 roots of, 159, 174; in ourselves, 320-21 three kinds of, 158, 160, 168, 248, 325 as understood by Shravakas, 445n41 sugatagarbha, 192, 233, 361. Stt also tathaga- tagarbha summer retreat, 291, 471nn175-77 supreme mundane level. Stt unaff paths, five: of joining sutras of definitive meaning, 196, 233, 336-37, 347, 479n225 o f expedient meaning, 336-37, 479n225 Svatantrika, 346, 349, 407, 413-17, 420, 422,428, 482n241, 489n293 on apprehension of self, 414 autonomous reasoning, 416 in hannony with Prasangika, 349, 417, 488n283 lower and higher subschools, 414-16, 4 18 on two kinds of absolute, 415 on two kinds of relative, 402-3, 4 81n2 35 tantra (mantrayana, secret mantra, vajray- ana), 213, 229, 231-32, 349, 371, 385, 443n28, 449n60 authentic teachers of, 191-92, 245 removal of obscurations in mantray- ana, 227 and three trainings, 454n87 to be taught at proper time, 220, 475nl97 vows, 294-95, 298-314 passim, 474nl94 Stt also generation and perfection stages tathagatagarbha, 459nll4 nature of mind, 226, 269, 304-5 sutras of, 458nl08 Stt also sugatagarbha teacher(s) (guru, spiritual friend), 273, 460n1l4,479n224 authentic teachers, 195-97, 255 behavior toward, 162-63, 202-6, 236 embodiment of Three Jewels, 201; of the Buddha, 192, 195 false teachers, 193-94 how teachers should be followed, 201-8 imponance of checking them, 194-95 reliance on, twentyfold attitude, 197-98 service of, three ways, 201, 205, 449n59 signs of authenticity of, 191-93 teachings definitive vs. expedient, 336, 340 implied vs. indirect, 337, 342 INDEX 547
teachings (continued) implied, four, 337-38 indirect, four, 338-41
ten powers, 223, 387, 431, 435 ten strengths, 223, 357, 388- 89, 435 Theravada, 446n45, 470n170, 471nl79 thirteen factors influencing human behav- ior, 136 thirty-seven elements leading to enlight- enment, 391-95 Thirty-three, heaven of, 137, 167, 360, 363, 484n255 thought patterns, innate vs. misconcep- tions, 222, 452n70 three fears of Buddhist practitioners, 213 Three Jewels, 108-10, 213, 232, 139, 213, 231 .. negative acts against, 142, 234 never deceptive, 238 rejection of, 142, 237, 236 remembrance of at death, 457nl05 in tantra, 232, 456nl00 Set also refuge time, 449n61 instant of, 453n76 tong/en. See giving and taking transitory composite, view of, 215-16, 222, 381, 481n234 Tripitaka, 112, 225-26, 263 Triskandhanama-mahayana-sutra, 274 true existence, refutation o f an extrane- ous, 418- 19, 423-24 twelve links. Set under dependent arising twenty lesser defilements, 378, 380, 382-83 two truths, 398-411 according to four tenet systems, 345- 50, 397 contain all knowledge objects, 399 have no intrinsic existence, 340, 344 indivisibility of, 338, 343-44, 350, 406-9 Longchenpa on, 408 necessarily two, 399 no common ground, 397 Patrul Rinpoche on, 407-8 reasons for establishing them, 410 superior (in mantrayana), 400, 404 uniquely Buddhist teaching, 400 ways of distinguishing, 401-4 See also absolute truth; relative truth . universe, 125 name of, 485n260 phases of, 126, 359-64; reflected in in- dividual existence, 365 three thousandfold, 125, 259 upasaka. Set under pratimoksha upavasa. See under pratimoksha Uttarakuru, 258, 292, 301, 362- 63, 471nl78 Vaibhashika, 141, 313, 345, 349, 377, 481nn236-37 V airochana Gangchen T so, 366 vajrayana. Set tantra V atsiputriya, 472nl79 veils, two, 102, 224, 245, 267, 390, 421, three three three natures or realities, 338, 339-40, 346-47, 420, 480n226 pure elements (of offering), 261, 462nl26 qualifications for composition, 44on8 I I I , realms of existence, 441nl4 three desire realm, 484n255 form realm 158, 361 formless realm, 158, 361, 441n14, three three three three scopes or categories of beings, 108, 112, 151-52, 209, 233, 248, 439n5 seats, mandala of, 227, 314, 455n88 spheres, conceptions of, 235, 316, 317, 357, 410, 467nl49 trainings, 249, 263, 267, 272, 316, 335, 548 INDEX 484n253; and non-buddhist tradi- tions, 441nl4 obscurations associated with, 218 454n87 basis of: seventeen precepts, 291-92 presented as thirty-seven elements, 391 434, 489n290. Set also obscurations
views of doctrinal and ethical superiority,
216-17, 381, 481n234 vigilance (vigilant introspection), 212, 237, 273, 284, 289, 317, 330-31 vinaya, transmission of to Tibet, 472nl80 vipashyana, 190, 329, 331-32, 335, 356, 470n174, 477n214 distinguished from shamatha, 329, 433, 479n221 and intellectual analysis, 484n252 and shamatha united, 219, 329, 332, 423 vinue (vinuous action) gathering, discipline of, 316-18 of ordinary beings, 247-48 not truly existent, 312 six vinues (non paramitas), 152, 444n3° tending to happiness, 134, 139, 151, 442nl7 tending to liberation, 152, 183, 442nl7 vows authenticity of depends on attitude, 314 and avoidance of scandal, 306-8 bodhisattva vow, 267, 293-94; Asanga vs. Nagarjuna on, 266-68; defined, 301; four aspects of, 317-18, 475n205; ritual for, 255-70; three recitations of fonnula, 269 dual function of vow, 297 eligibility for, 301, 473nl87 given for different needs of beings, 315 Hinayana vs. Mahayana, 284-86, 297-98 ignorance of, 291 imperceptible fonns, 377 mantrayana vow, 294, 300-303 mere vow vs. true commitment, 302 nature of, according to tenet systems, 313-14, 475n2oo nonvows, 377 pratimoksha vs. bodhichitta, 294, 466nl43 radical defeats, 290-91 three kinds of; apparent contradictions resolved, 294-95, 306; as taught in Nyingma tradition, 296-308, 313; as taught in other traditions, 308-12; enhancement of, 306; essence of the three vows, 300; higher vows take precedence, 307; observed simulta- neously, 293-96, 302-3; transfonna- tion of, 294, 299-305, 309, 474nl94 transgression of; four doors of, 291, 470n172; skilful means regarding, 292, 293 wannth. Stt untltr paths, five: of joining wisdom, 335, 355 absolute vs. example, 303, 473nl86 all-accomplishing, 244 all-discerning, III, 243, 356, 484n252 coemergent, 227 of the dhannadhatu, 244 extraordinary (luminosity), 313 of equality, 244 of luminosity, 232, 313 mirrorlike, 243, 474nl94 primordial, 195, 205, 268, 342, 356; ab- solute truth, 342, 397, 405; experi- enced directly on grounds, 250; extraordinary, of the Mahayana, 227-29; realizes ultimate nature, 344, 409, 410; three distinctive as- pects of, 224, 390 resulting from hearing, 335-50 resulting from reflection, 349, 351-55 resulting from meditation, 355-58 words of truth, 463nl30 working for others, 318 wrong view, 117, 146, 148, 150, 216, 237, 381
Padmakara Translations into English
Padmakara Translations into English
The Adornment of the Middle Way. Shantarakshita and Jamgon Mipham. Shambhala Publications, 2005.
Counsels from My Heart. Dudjom Rinpoche. Shambhala Publications, 2001.
Enlightened Courage. Dilgo Khyentse. Editions Padmakara, 1992; Snow Lion Publications, 1994, 2006.
The Excellent Path of Enlightenment. Dilgo Khyentse. Editions Padmakara, 1987; Snow Lion Publications, 1996.
A Flash of Lightning in the Dark of Night. H. H. the Dalai Lama. Shambhala Publications, 1993.
Food of Bodhisattvas. Shabkar Tsokdruk Rangdrol. Shambhala Publicatlons, 2004.
A Guide to the Words of My Perfect Teacher. Khenpo Ngawang Pelzang. Translated with Dipamkara. Shambhala Publications, 2004.
The Heart of Compassion. Dilgo Khyentse. Shambhala Publications, 2007.
The Heart Treasure of the Enlightened Ones. Dilgo Khyentse and Patrul Rinpoche. Shambhala Publications, 1992.
The Hundred Verses of Advice. Dilgo Khyentse and Padampa Sangye. Shambhala Publications, 2005.
Introduction to the Middle Way. Chandrakirti and Jamgon Mipham. Shambhala Publications, 2002.
Journey to Enlightenment. Matthieu Ricard. Aperture, 1996.
Lady of the Lotus-Born. Gyalwa Changchub and Namkhai Nyingpo. Shambhala Publications, 1999.
The Life of Shabkar: Autobiography of a Tibetan Yogi. Shabkar Tsokdruk Rangdrol. SUNY Press, 1994.
Nagarjuna's Letter to a Friend. Longchen Yeshe Dorje, Kangyur Rinpoche. Snow Lion Publications, 2005.
The Nectar of Manjushri's Speech. Kunzang Pelden. Shambhala Publications, 2007.
The Root Stanzas of the Middle Way (Mulamadhyamaka-karika). Nagarjuna. Editions Padmakara, 2008.
Treasury of Precious Qualities. Longchen Yeshe Dorje, Kangyur Rinpoche. Shambhala Publications, 2001, 2010.
The Way of the Bodhisattva (Bodhicharyavatara). Shantideva. Shambhala Publications, 1997, 2006.
White Lotus. Jarngon Mipham. Shambhala Publications, 2007.
Wisdom: Two Buddhist Commentaries. Khenchen Kunzang Pelden and Minyak Kunzang Sonam. Editions Padmakara, 1993, 1999.
The Wish-Fuifilling Jewel. Dilgo Khyentse. Shambhala Publications, 1999.
The Words of My Perfect Teacher. Patrul Rinpoche. International Sacred Literature Trust-HarperCollins, 1994; 2nd edition, Sage AltaMira, 1998; Shambhala Publications, 1999.
Zurchungpa's Testament. Dilgo Khyentse. Snow Lion Publications, 2006.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Klong-chen Ye-shes-rdo-rje, Bka'-'gyur Rin-po-che.
[Yon tan rin po che'i mdzod kyi mchan 'grel theg gsum bdud rtsi'i nying khu. English]
Treasury of precious qualities. Book one, The rain of joy / by Jigme Lingpa.
With the Quintessence of the three paths commentary / by Longchen Yeshe Dorje, Kangyur Rinpoche.-Ist pbk. ed.
In English; includes translation from Tibetan.
Previously published: 2001.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
"Translated by the Padmakara Translation Group; forewords by
H. H. the Dalai Lama and Jigme Khyentse Rinpoche."
ISBN 978-1-59030-711-3 (pbk.: alk. paper)
I. 'Jigs-med-glin-pa Ran-byun-rdo-rje, 1729 or 30-1798.
Yon tan rin po che'i mdzod. 2. Rdzogs-chen-Doctrines.
1729 or 30-1798. Yon tan rin po che'i mdzod. English.
III. Title. IV. Title: Rain of joy.