Buddha-nature and Emptiness

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WIENER STUDIEN ZUR TIBETOLOGIE UND BUDDHISMUSKUNDE

HEFT 91
Kazuo Kano
Buddha-nature and Emptiness
rNgog Blo-ldan-shes-rab and
A Transmission of the Ratnagotravibhāga from India to Tibet

WIEN 2016

ARBEITSKREIS FÜR TIBETISCHE UND BUDDHISTISCHE STUDIEN

UNIVERSITÄT WIEN

Table of content

CONTENTS

PREFACE

Introduction

PART I Historical and Doctrinal Background

PART II rNgog Blo-ldan-shes-rab and His Doctrinal Position

PART III rNgog’s Impact on Later Developments

  • Chapter 10 rNgog’s Impact on Doctrinal Developments from the 11th to the Early 14th Century
  • Chapter 11 rNgog’s Impact on Doctrinal Developments from the Late 14th to the 16th Century
  • Conclusion

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

  • Resituating rNgog’s Position in a Wider Context

APPENDICES

ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES

INDICES

A Synoptic Outline of This Book

Introduction


Part I: Historical and Doctrinal Background

Chapter 1: The Authorship of the Ratnagotravibhāga and Its Transmission in India from the 5th to the 10th Century

Chapter 2: The Resurrection of the Ratnagotravibhāga in India in the Early 11th Century: Maitrīpa and Jñānaśrīmitra

Chapter 3: Ratnäkarasänti’s Understanding of Buddha-nature 71

  • Ratnäkarasänti 71
    • Buddha-nature 74
    • Yänatraya 78
    • The Ekayäna Doctrine Found in Two Works Attributed to Ratnäkarasänti: the Sütrasamuccayabhäsya and Triyänavyavasthäna jq
    • The Säratama s and Kusumänjali’s Interpretations ofAbhisamayälamkära I.39 8°
    • The Sütrasamuccayabhäsyds Interpretation of Abhisamayälamkära I.39 82
    • The Authorship of the Sütrasamuccayabhäsya and Triyänavyavasthäna 85
    • References to the Ratnagotravibhāga Found in the Sütrasamuccayabhäsya 87
  • A Summary and Further Considerations 95

Chapter 4: The Transmission of the Ratnagotravibhāga in East India from the 11th to 13th Century:From Prajnäkaramati to Vibhüticandra 97

  • Prajnäkaramati 97
  • Atisa 98
  • Yamâri 101
  • Vairocanaraksita 103
  • Rämapäla 105
  • Sahajavajra 108
  • Abhayäkaragupta 108
  • Zhi ba ’byung gnas 124
  • Dasabalasrimitra 126
  • Ratnaraksita 127
  • Vibhüticandra 130
  • A Summary and Further Considerations 132

Chapter 5: The Kashmiri Tradition of the Ratnagotravibhāga Exegesis in the 11th and 12th Centuries: Sajjana and his Circle 135

  • Sajjana 135
  • Mahäjana 139 Amrtäkara 144
  • Jayänanda 148
  • A Summary and Further Considerations 152

Chapter 6: Six Tibetan Translations of the Ratnagotravibhāga 155

  • The Translation by Atisa and Nag-tsho 156
  • The Translation by rNgog and Sajjana 163
  • The Translation by Pa-tshab 167
  • The Translation by Mar-pa Do-pa Chos-kyi-dbang-phyug 171
  • The Translation by Jo-nang Lo-tsä-ba Blo-gros-dpal 172
  • The Translation by Yar-klungs Lo-tsä-ba 176
  • How Did Tibetans study the SanskritText ofthe Ratnagotravibhāga? —TibetanRemarksFoundinaRatnagotravibhāgaSanskritManuscript 177
  • A Summary and Further Considerations 178

Conclusion to Chapters 1-6 181


Part II: rNgog Blo-ldan-shes-rab and His Doctrinal Position 189

Chapter 7: The Life and Works of rNgog Blo-ldan-shes-rab 191

  • A Translation of Las-chen Kun-dga’-rgyal-mtshan’s Sketch of rNgog’s Life 193
  • The Tibetan Text: Las-chen Kun-dga’-rgyal-mtshan, bKa gdams chos 'byung 197
  • Other Episodes 198
  • Works 202
    • A List of rNgog’s Writings 202
  • The Spread of the Teaching of the gSang phu Tradition in Mi nyag and rNgog’s Letter Addressed to a Community in Tsong kha 208
  • The Composition of rNgog’s Concise Guide to the Ratnagotravibhdga 210

Chapter 8: rNgog’s Doctrinal Positions in Relation to Sajjana’s and His Commentarial Style 211

  • Problems Associated with the Buddha-nature Doctrine of the Ratnagotravibhdga 212
  • Sajjana’s Doctrinal Position 215
  • Textual Materials relating to Sajjana’s Mahayanottaratantrasdstropadesa 217
  • Previous Studies of the Mahayänottaratantrasästropadesa 218
  • A Structural Analysis of the Mahäyänottaratantrasästropadesa 219
  • An Outline of the Mahdyänottaratantrasästropadesa 221
  • Sajjana’s Soteriological Schemas on the Ratnagotravibhdga 226
  • rNgog’s Doctrinal Position 228
  • rNgog’s Commentarial Style 233
  • The Commentarial Style and Techniques Characteristic of rNgog’s Concise Guides 234
  • An Evaluation of rNgog’s Commentarial Style within the Wider History ofTibetan Buddhism 238
  • A Summary and Further Considerations 239

Chapter 9: rNgog’s rGyud bla ma’i don bsdus pa as a Reflection of His Own Doctrinal Position 241

  • Previous Studies 241
  • A Description of Materials relating to the rGyud bla ma’i don bsdus pa 243
    • The dbu med Handwritten Manuscript 243
    • Other Extant Handwritten Manuscripts 244
    • The Block Print 245
    • Phywa-pa’s Ratnagotravibhdga Commentary 246
  • Works Quoted in the rGyudbla mai don bsduspa 247
  • rNgog’s Structural Analysis of the Contents of the Ratnagotravibhdga 248
  • An Evaluation ofthe Ratnagotravibhāga among Maitreya’s Corpus of Five Treatises 249
  • The Seven vajrapadas and the Soteriological Models of the Ratnagotravibhāga 251
    • The Ratnagotravibhāga's Presentation of Its Main Topic 252
    • The Cycle of apratisthitanirvdna 255
    • The Cycle of the Three Jewels 256
      • The Indirect Cause 256
      • The Direct Cause 258
  • Eight Qualities of the Jewel of the Sangha 260
  • rNgog’s Position on the Buddha-nature Doctrine 261
    • The Three Aspects of Buddha-nature: dharmakäya, tathatä, gotra 262
    • Buddha-nature/Emptiness as a Cause 266
    • Buddha-nature and the Älayavijnäna 268
    • The Ontological Status of the Buddha-qualities: An Interpretation of RGV I.154- 155 270
    • The Relation between the Doctrines of Emptiness and the Buddha-nature Doctrine: An Interpretation of RGV 1.156-167 273
  • A Summary and Further Considerations 274

Conclusion to Chapters 7-9 277


Part III: rNgog’s Impact on Later Developments 283

Chapter 10: rNgog’s Impact on Doctrinal Developments from the 11th to the Early 14th Century 285

  • An Overview of Later Tibetan Scholars’ Reactions to rNgog’s Position 285
  • Details of Later Reactions 291
  • Gro-lung-pa Blo-gros-’byung-gnas 291
    • Gro-lung-pa’s Writings 291
    • Gro-lung-pa on the Ultimate Truth 292
    • Gro-lung-pa on the Three Aspects of Buddha-nature 293
    • Gro-lung pa on the Gotra 294
  • Phywa-pa Chos-kyi-seng-ge 296
    • Phywa-pa’s Writings 296
    • Phywa-pa’s Ratnagotravibhāga Commentaries 298
    • Phywa-pa’s Positions That Accord with rNgog’s 299
    • Phywa-pa’s Positions That Develop rNgog’s Further 300
      • The Älayavijnäna 300
      • MistakenViewson EmptinessandYogācāra 301
      • Buddha-nature and Emptiness 302
      • A Definition of the Two Kinds of Gotra 303
      • On the Ultimate Truth 308
  • Sa-skya Pandita Kun-dga’-rgyal-mtshan 309
  • bCom-ldan-ral-gri 311
    • bCom-ldan-ral-gri as a gZhan stong Forerunner 311
    • bCom-ldan-ral-gri’s Position as Reflected in His RGV Commentary 314
    • bCom-ldan-ral-gri’s Refutation of the *Amalavijnâna 316
    • bCom-ldan-ral-gri on RGV V.19 319
  • Blo-gros-mtshungs-med 320
    • Who is Blo-gros-mtshungs-med? 320
    • Blo-gros-mtshungs-med on the Five Treatises ofMaitreya 324
    • Blo-gros-mtshungs-med on the Vajrapadas 325
    • Blo-gros-mtshungs-med on the Worship of Srâvakas 325
    • Blo-gros-mtshungs-med on RGV 1.28 327
    • Blo-gros-mtshungs-med’s Own Position on Buddha-nature 329
    • Blo-gros-mtshungs-med on the Gotra 334
    • Blo-gros-mtshungs-med on the Nine Similes of Buddha-nature 335
    • Blo-gros-mtshungs-med’s Contributions 335
  • Bu-ston Rin-chen-grub 336
  • sGra-tshad-pa Rin-chen-rnam-rgyal 338
  • A Summary and Further Considerations 340

Chapter 11: rNgog’s Impact on Doctrinal Developments from the Late 14th to the 16th Century 345

  • Rong-ston Shäkya-rgyal-mtshan 345
  • rGyal-tshab Dar-ma-rin-chen 349
    • rGyal-tshab on RGV I.27 349
    • rGyal-tshab on the Seven Vajrapadas 351
    • rGyal-tshab on Verse V.19 352
    • rGyal-tshab on the Alayavijnâna 352
  • ’Gos Lo-tsä-ba gZhon-nu-dpal 352
    • gZhon-nu-dpal on the Two Cycles 354
    • gZhon-nu-dpal on the Eight Qualities of the Jewel of the Saiigha 355
    • gZhon-nu-dpal on RGV I.27 and 28 355
    • gZhon-nu-dpal on the Ten Buddha-nature Topics 357
    • gZhon-nu-dpal on RGV I.130 358
    • gZhon-nu-dpal on the Postscript to the First Chapter of the RGV 359
    • gZhon-nu-dpal on RGV V.19 359
  • gSer-mdog Pan-chen Shäkya-mchog-ldan 360
    • Shäkya-mchog-ldan’s Classification of Various Positions 361
    • A Sketch of Shäkya-mchog-ldan’s Position 363
    • Shäkya-mchog-ldan on the Seven Vajrapadas 364
    • Shäkya-mchog-ldan on RGV 1.27 and 28 365
    • Shäkya-mchog-ldan on Non-affirming Negation 368
    • Shäkya-mchog-ldan on the Two Truths 369
    • Shäkya-mchog-ldan’s Mus rabs ’byamspa’i dris lan 370
  • Pan-chen bSod-nams-grags-pa 372
    • bSod-nams-grags-pa on the Seven Vajrapadas 373
    • bSod-nams-grags-pa on the Jewel of the Saṅgha 373
    • bSod-nams-grags-pa on RGV 1.27 374
  • A Summary and Further Considerations 375

Conclusion to Chapters 10 and 11 379

Final Considerations: Resituating rNgog’s Position within a Wider Context 385

  • rNgog’s Struggle to Do Away with the Ontological Aspect of the Buddha-nature Doc¬ trine 392

Appendices 393

  • Appendix A: A Topical Outline of the rGyud bla ma'i don bsduspa 395
  • Appendix B: A List of Commentaries on the Ratnagotmvibhaga 405

Abbreviations 415

Bibliographies 417

  • Primary Sources by Indie Authors 417
  • Primary Sources by Tibetan Authors 423
  • Secondary Sources 432

Indices 461

  • Indie Personal Names 462
  • Tibetan Personal Names 464
  • Indie Work Tides 469
  • TibetanWorkTides 476
  • Chinese Personal Names and Work Tides 478
  • Toponyms 479 General Index 480